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11B Reconstruction

People, Events and Ideas

QuestionAnswer
How did Abraham Lincoln die? Lincoln was assassinated in 1865, five days after the Civil War ended. His vice-president Andrew Johnson became president.
How did Andrew Johnson's background present challenges for reconstruction? Johnson was a Republican (like Lincoln) but he was from the southern slave-holding state, Tennessee.
How did Andrew Johnson "reconstruct" the confederacy? Johnson kept things simple and quick: to re-join the union, states had to write new constitutions; elect new state governments; repeal their secession laws, and ratify the 13th amendment.
What caused the split between the Republican president Johnson and the Radical Republican Congress. Johnson (the southerner) was ready to admit confederate states to the union, while Congress demanded that they could not re-join until freed slaves got all rights as full citizens.
What was the Freedmen's Bureau? Federal agency responsible for helping war refugees and freedmen with basic needs such as food, clothing and medicine. It also created schools.
What was the 13th amendment? This amendment abolished slavery.
What was the 14th amendment? This amendment gave full citizenship to all freed slaves and granted "equal protection" to everyone.
What was the 15th amendment? This amendment gave all men the right to vote. (universal male suffrage)
How did Congress seek to protect newly-freed slaves? Civil Rights Act of 1866 - gave citizenship to everyone born in the U.S.A, except American Indian tribes. This was the first federal law protecting racial minorities.
How did President Andrew Johnson react to the Civil Rights Act of 1866? Johnston vetoed the bill; Congress overrode the veto; this was followed by the 14th amendment.
Who was Hiram Rhodes Revels? First African American Senator. He came from the southern state, Mississippi
What was the Military Reconstruction Act of 1877? This law divided the south into 5 military districts, each controlled by the U.S. army.
Without slave labor, how did the southern plantation economy recover after the war? Sharecropping replaced slavery. Many former slaves became tenant farmers (not much better than slavery)
How did southern states respond to the 13th, 14th and 15th amendments? They created state and local laws limiting the rights of African Americans. These were called Black Codes or Jim Crow laws.
What was the Ku Klux Klan? A secret society in the south that terrorized African Americans and whites who supported them.
What was the Homestead Act of 1862? Federal law giving western lands to settlers who agreed to build a house and farm the land. This caused rapid settlement of the west.
What was the Morrill Act of 1862? This law created land grant colleges emphasizing agriculture and mechanic arts. Texas A & M University was founded under the Morrill Act. People had opportunities for education that had never been available before.
How did the second Morrill Act of 1890 affect reconstruction? This law led to the development of what we now know as "historically black colleges."
What was the Dawes Act? This law permitted the president to break up Native American lands and give small parcels to individuals. This hurt the communal culture of Native Americans.
Unit 11B Reconstruction People, Events and Ideas
Why was Andrew Johnson impeached? Johnson fought with the Radical Republican Congress and refused to follow laws limiting his power during Reconstruction. Johnson was NOT removed from office by one vote.