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Physiotherapy Boards

Active and Passive Board Review

Contraindications to all modalities? Hemorrhage, Infection, Malignancy
Contraindications to all heating modalities? DM, TB, Encapsulated swellings, Decreased thermal sensation, Abdomen or Low back during pregnancy
Contraindications to all electrical modalities? Brain, eyes, heart, carotid sinuses, pacemaker, pregnancy (LB and Abs), open wounds, decreased sensation (LVG only)
The best modality to increase circulation? IR
The deepest heating modality? Ultrasound
Used to treat superficial infections? UV
Contraindications to massage therapy? *Vascular problems (phlebitis, thrombosis, Varicosities, local acute inflammation, ulcerations
Transverse friction massage is not recommended for what conditions? Calcific tendonitis or Bursitis
What are the indications for traction therapy? Disc syndromes, Foraminal encroachment, hyperlordosis, chronic spasms, fibrotic adhesions
What are the contraindications for traction? Bone weakening conditions (osteoporosis, rickets, osteomalacia), pregnancy, RA, acute spasm, FX, hypertensive disorders
What are the traction recommendations for the cervical spine? Begin @ 5% BW and increase 2pds each Tx (max of 50pds). Never extend the cervical spine.
What are the traction recommendations for the lumbar spine? Begin @ 25% BW, increase 5pds each Tx (max 150pds). Patient is supine w/ legs flexed (90/90)
Vasoconstriction followed by Vasodilation while using cryotherapy is called? Hunting-Lewis Rxn
Contraindications for cryotherapy? Raynaud's/Buerger's, Chilbains, frostbite, vascular problems
What are the sensory reactions to cryotherapy? Cold - Burning - Aching - Anesthesia (numbness)
Fingernail test? Barouche
Cold wet towels? Raspt
Physiological effects of IR? increases vasodilation and lymph flowdecreases spasms, BP
Indications of IR? Arthritis, contusions, Raynaud's, Bell's palsy, MSK conditions
Contraindications of IR? Same as contraindications for heat
Short wave IR? Emitted by heated bodies, 14-18" away, sunlight = heliotherapy
Long wave IR? (Direct contact) Hydrocollator (6 towel layers), Hot water bottle, electric pads (170 F)
Too much radiation causing mottled, splotchy skin and redness is called what? Erythema Ab igne
For every increase of 10 degrees celcius the rate of oxidation increases 2 1/2 times? Van Hopf's Temperature Law
Best form of IR? Hydrocollator pack (moist heat) 150-170 F
Best modality for superficial vascular? IR high frequency
Transmission of heat in gas and liquids by circulation of heat? (hydrocollator, hot water bottle) Convection
Transmission of heat without intervening medium getting warm? Radiation (sun, UV lamp, IR lamp)
The conversion of electrical energy into heat or mechanical energy? Conversion (SWD, MWD, US)
The transfer of heat through a substance? Conduction (hydrocollator, paraffin bath)
What is the temp for a cold bath? hot bath? Cold = 55-65, Hot = 98-105
What are some contraindications for baths? vacular disorder or sensation loss
What type of bath would be used to treat Raynauds and Buerger's? Start hot and end in cold bath
What bath would be used to treat hemorrhoids, dysmenorrhea, coccydynia, prostatitis? Sitz
What can be a paraffin bath be used for? Chronic OA or RA
What is a Hubbert Tank used for? To Tx burn patients
What are the actions of UV? thermal and photochemical
What causes erythema when UV is used? Congestion of capillaries due to the release of histamine
Tanning of the skin is due to what? movement of melanin (phototaxia)
What conditions are indicated for UV Tx? Acne, fungus, herpes zoster, taenis pedis, taenia capitis, ulcers, rickets, osteomalacia
What are the the superficial modalities that only penetrate 1-2mm's? UV, IR
What test is used to guage the pt tolerance to UV? Erythema patch test aka Sleeve test
What is the wavelength of Short wave? Long wave? short (near) = 180-270 long (far) = 270-390
The first two stages of burn include? 0: suberythemal dose (SED) = No reddening, 1: minimal erythemal dose (MED) = reddening w/out desquamation
The last three stages include? 2: 1st degree burn = reddening w/ sunburn, 3: 2nd degree burn = itching, redness, burning, desquamation (peeling), blisters, 4: 3rd degree burn = swelling, edema, blister
The optimum effect of radiation occurs when the part treated is at a right angle to the source? Cosine Law aka Angulation of Rays
The intesity of radiation from any light source varies inversely with the square of the distance from the source? Inverse Square Law (36" distance reduced by 1/2 increased the intensity 4x's)
Kromayer - water cooled device? Hot Quartz
MC neon and mercury? Cold Quartz
Goggles for both patient and operator, sore throats? Orificial
UV filtered through nickel oxide glass used for fluorescence? Wood's Light Lamp or Filter
What physiologic effects does short wave and microwave diathermy decrease? BP, nerve pain, cramps, spasms
What are indications for diathermy? Hip and chronic joint conditions, muscle, tendon, nerve inflammation, bone conditions, bronchitis, sinusitis
What are 2 specific conditions contraindicated for microwave diathermy? sinusitis and otitis media
Why do you have to wear goggles to operate MWD? To avoid cataracts
What are Butterfly electrodes used for? SWD - for Tx sinusitis
What is diapulse used for? Tx adrenals
What is the mode of action for MWD? SWD? MWD = inside out, SWD = outside in
Generally what conditions are Tx w/ SWD? MWD? SWD = bronchitis, sinusitis, PID, MWD = muscle strain
How deep does diathermy penetrate? Deep = 2"
What is the Tx distance with SWD? MWD? SWD = w/ towel directly on skin, MWD = 1-5" away w/ no towels (never direct contact)
What are the 3 best Tx's for pain? IFC, Tens, High Volt
What are the modes of action for US? Thermal = hyperemia, alkalosis, deep heat, Mechanical = removes exudates, Chemical = inc. gas exchange / chemical oxid., Neural = anesthesia (mild)
Contraindications for US? vascular, TB, epiphyses, bony prominence (unless under water), spinal cord, ganglia, plexuses
Penetration for US? Deep = 4-8cm (deepest heat modality)
US intensity w/ coupling agent: acute? chronic? acute = 0.5-1.5 watts / cm2, chronic = 1.0-2.0 watts / cm2
US intensity w/ under water: acute? chronic? acute = 1.0-2.0 w/cm2, chronic = 1.5-2.5 w/cm2
Pulsed US eliminates what? Thermal effect (used for massage effect)
Continuous US does what? Maximizes thermal effect
What do the piezoelectric crystals in the sound head of the US machine do? Convert electrical energy to mechanical vibrations
What is phonophoresis? chemical driven into skin (vit. A and E creams used as coupling medium)
What are the direct currents aka monophasic or unidirectional? LVG, HV, Tens (all have polarity)
This law recognizes that an increase in current increases temp? Joule's Law
This modality uses soluble ionic salts to drive a charge into the body's tissue? Iontophoresis (anode = + cathode = -)
Negative Pole / cathode is used for? adhesions, bursitis, bruises, scars, sprain/strain
Positive Pole/ anode is used for? edema (Mg+), fibrositis, fungus (Cu+), neuritis
What is the mode of action for Galvanic? electrokinetic/electrochemical
What are the physiologic effects of the positive pole? attracts acid, oxygen, vasoconstricts, acute pain relief, contracts/hardens tissue
What is electrodiagnosis used for? Tests for reaction of degeneration (RD), LMNL(injury that separates muscle from ant. horn cell)*NCV and EMG modalities used
What are the treatments for a partial RD? total RD? Absolute RD? partial = slight faradic, increased galvanic, 2 weeks, Total = no faradic, athetoid (vermicular) galvanic, 3 wks to 1 year, Absolute = No response to anything, no recovery
What size is the active electrode, and where is it placed? Dispersal pad? Active = small, on Tx site, Dispersal pad = large, proximal limb away from Tx site
High Volt has what mode of action? electrokinetic
What are the physiologic effects of High Volt? Pain control = endorphines and enkephalinesSpasm and Edema reducedExercises mucle (contraction)
Contraindications to High Volt? heart, pacemakers, pregnancy**Decreased sensation is NOT contraindicated
What is the application of the + polarity? - polarity? (+) = acute pain(-) = trigger point
What are the following high volt settings used for: 15-20? >20? 1-10? 70-100? 15-20 = exercise, > 20 = tetanized, 1-10 = edema and endorphin production, 70-100 = enkephalin production
What are the following high volt rate modes used for: continuous mode? switch rate mode? interrupted mode? continuous = inflammation and pain, switch = spasmsinterrupted - re-educate, strengthen
What is monopolar dispersal pad placement used for? deep penetration and large area
What is bipolar dispersal pad placement used for? (same size active and dispersal) small area/individual mm groups
What is the mode of action for TENS? Gate theory and Opiate theory
What theory did Melzack and Wall develop? Gate Pain theory
When is TENS indicated and what is the penetration level? indicated for pain (not vascular)penetrates superficial
What is the size and function of A-beta fibers? largest, fastest, proprioception
What is the size and function of A-delta fibers? smaller, slower, temperature, touch, pain
What is the size and function of C-fibers? smallest, slowest, carry only pain
What is the mode of action for sinusoidal/faradic? AC, low voltage, low frequency, electrokinetic
What is the difference between sinusoidal AC and faradic AC? sinusoidal = each cycle is neutral/equal, faradic = high intensity pulse more effective
What modality has the deepest (intra-articular) penetration? IFC
What is the mode of action for IFC? electrokinetic, pain control
Russina stimulation (premodulated) increases what? mucle size and strength
Modulation constantly changes what? frequency (decreasing accomodation)
What is the difference between vectoring on and vectoring off? on = large Tx areaoff = small Tx area
What is Wedensky inhibition? Inhibition of muscle response resulting from application of a series of rapidly repeated stimuli to the motor nerve where slower frequency of stimulation results in muscle response
What are the rotator cuff muscles and actions? Supraspinatus = abduction, Infraspinatus = ext. rotation, Teres Minor = ext. rotation, Subscapularis = internal rotation
What condition can be Tx through VMO (quad) rehabilitation? chondromalacia patella (lateral tracking)
What is the action of the teres major? adducts and medially rotates shoulder
What are the actions of the hamstrings? Leg flexion, rotation of tibia
What is the action of the gasctrocnemius? plantar flex, flex the leg at knee
What is the action of the soleus? plantar flexion
What is the action of the tibialis anterior? dorsiflexion and inversion
What is the action of the iliopsoas? flexion of the thigh
When should passive exercised be utilized? during joint inflammation (prevents contractures)
What is an isometric contraction? no change in muscle length, no joint movement
What is an isotonic contraction? muscle length is changed, joint moved
What is concentric contraction? shortening
What is eccentric contraction? lengthening
A Cybex machine changes muscle length while constantly changing pressure at a constant speed through a full ROM. What type of contraction does it utilize? Isokinetic
Exercises used for peripheral vascular disease. Pt. sitting, legs elevated until blanching of extremity? Buerger-Allen
Group of exercises to reduce low back pain. Pt. is in a sit-up position, iliopsoas not used, flexion exercises? Williams's
Extension exercises for acute low back pain, disc problems? McKenzie's
Exercise that strengthens shoulder girdle, but eliminates use of supraspinatus, frozen shoulder? Codman's
A systematic approach to muscle strength gain by increaseing resistance? (wt. training) DeLorme's
Exercise used to improve pelvic floor muscles, urinary incontinence? Keagles
Stress exercises to aid in relaxation? Jacobson's
Used to mobilize the spine, exercise muscles in scoliotic condition, cross-crawl? Clayton's
Ataxic motion, wobble board, develops proprioception? Frenkel's
This type of exercise shortens the muscle very quickly? Ballistic
What is an example of an open chain exercise? knee extension
What is an example of a closed chain exercise? squats
What are Kayoki exercises used for? Hip
What support would be indicated if George's line is disrupted, the patient can rotate head? Firm Cervical Collar (moderate cervical laxity)
What support is indicated for severe laxity of the cervical spine? Philadelphia Collar (no ROM)
If no cervical laxity is found what support should be used? Soft foam collar
What brace is recommended for a Cobb's angle of 20-40 degrees? (scoliosis) Milwaukee brace
This brace is indicated for SI hypermobility aka trochanteric belt? Sacroiliac girdle
This brace is used for inversion ankle sprains? Figure 8 aka Lousiana strap
This brace is used on the knee aka the De-rotational brace? Lennox-Hill
This brace is used to keep the wrist out of flexion and for carpal tunnel syndrome? Cockup Splint (worn at night)
What is the best modality for acute injury? Pulsed US
What is the most indicated modality for fracture? microcurrent
What are Bobath exercises used for? Cerebral Palsy or UMNL
Force/Time = minutes of time to create a contraction, 2x's rheobase? Chronaxie
Amount of time of muscle stimulation to create a contraction? Rheobase
Created by: palmerchiro101
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