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Final Exam


Black Death Carried by fleas on black rats from Black sea ports, it was transmitted by eating meat from diseased cattle. It first struck Mongolia in 1331, crossed into Russia, reached Sicily in 1347, and spread swiftly through much of Europe through human contact.
Joan of Arc She rallied French troops and led them into battle because she believed heavenly voices commanded her to lead armies of France to victory over the English, she was then captured by the English and condemned a heretic and a witch by the church and burned at the stake.
Hundred Years War English kings ruled parts of France which caused conflicts between the two monarchies, the outcome of the war gave new taxes which added to the French Kings income, gave them loyal troops, a growing national unity, the English had a greater sense of solidarity, but French peasants lost farmland and many farmers were killed.
Great Schism Cardinals declared the election of Urban was invalid (due to his tactlessness, mental imbalance, and abusing and imprisoning of cardinals) and elected Clement VII as pope, Urban refused to step down and excommunicated Clement who did the same to Urban, which left Europe with two popes, Urban in Rome, and Clement in Avignon.
modernity The separation of the church and a higher power from logical thinking, nature, and purpose
Renaissance Rebirth, attempt by artists and thinkers to recover and apply the ancient learning and standards of Greece and Rome
Birthplace of Renaissance City-states of northern Italy
Humanism Valued full developed of human talent and possibilities of life
Renaissance gender roles Males- work, create a fortune; Females- nurture children, manage household
Economic success of Venice Controlled a lucrative maritime empire and governed itself without a major upheaval; its republican constitution made its stability possible
Machiavelli and "The Prince" Machiavelli broke with both medieval and humanist traditions of political though, he was a secularist who tried to understand and explain the state without recourse to Christian teachings. He said religion should not be the foundation of politics but a tool in the prince’s struggle for success. The prince is both wily and virtuous, and know how to make all his actions appear virtuous even if they are not.
Work of Leonardo da Vinci The Last Supper, Mona Lisa, St. John the Baptist
impact of printing press Book publishing industry developed, became easier to learn to read, standardized written language across Europe, prevented corruption of texts
Thomas More An influential humanist of the early English Renaissance who wrote Utopia, a major utopian treatise where he argued than an acquisitive society is by nature unjust and unprosperous
Jan Hus Bohemian reformer that attacked the church and argued for Bohemian independence at a time when the Holy Roman Emperor had no intention of giving up control over the territory
Martin Luther and Lutheranism The Reformation began and the Protestant denomination came to which gave nobles a way to resist the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
Indulgences Good works or monetary donations to the church to pay for time taken off of a purgatory sentence
Calvinists predestination
Henry the VIII and formation of Church of England Severed England from the Roman Catholic church because they would not allow him to divorce. Developed the Church of England in the sixteenth century and only differed a little from Roman Catholicism
Catholic Counter reformation Strove to bypass local corruption and appeal to the papacy to lead to an international movement to revive Christian universalism, offering hope based on a religious revival and the power to offer forgiveness rather than predestination.
European expansion Rivalry to extend control overseas, religion, break the monopoly on spices, gold, and slaves
Atlantic slave trade and middle passage Black slaves from Africa formed the basis of the slave population in the new United States, the conditions of the middle passage (voyage from Africa) were brutal and cause 13 to 30% of blacks to die on board. Slaves were bought based on strength, youthfulness, and beauty.
Price Revolution Inflation during the sixteenth century, cereal prices multiplied by eight times or more. The main cause of price revolution was population growth during the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries so food production fell behind which increases prices especially in staples foods such as bread and grains.
changes in farming Landlords pursued possibilities for profit resulting from inflation of farm prices by attacking the open-field systems by transforming their land into commercial farms by changing their copyholds to leases and raising rent higher than a tenant could afford, and enclosing the open-field or having tenants that could pay premiums.
capitalism A system of private enterprise where the main economic decisions (what, how much, where, and at what price to produce, buy and sell) are made by private individuals in their capacity as owners, workers, or consumers. Also a system of free enterprise: the basic decisions are not left only to individuals; these decisions are also made in response to market forces
Navigation Acts Allowed all English suppers to carry goods anywhere, replacing the old system that had restricted trade with certain areas to specific traders. Also required all goods to be carried in English ships, enabling merchants to buy English and colonial exports cheap and sell them expensively abroad, to buy foreign goods cheap and sell them expensively in England.
witchcraft White variety (healing and fortunetelling) black variety (conjured evil powers by a cure or by the manipulation of objects, such as the entrails of animals)
Where did Portuguese and Spanish travel? Portuguese- Madeira, Canaries, Azores, West African coast to Congo River, India, Malacca (Singapore) Malay Peninsula o Spanish- Caribbean island Espanola (Hispaniola), Mexico, Peru,
Where did English and Dutch travel East Indies English- Atlantic seaboard of North America, West Indies
constitutional monarchy and absolutism Constitutional gave power to landed or mercantile elites rather than to kings and their courts while absolutism gave a ruler and his court total and centralized power over the state. The Dutch Republic and England had a constitutional monarchy, while France and Spain practice absolutism.
Ruling dynasty in England 17th century Tudors
William I and Mary William was head of the Netherlands and husband of Mary, James Protestant daughter. They were elected King and queen by act of parliament.
Glorious Revolution A bloodless revolution that defeated royal absolutism forever, it increased political freedom in England and Parliament gained the rights to assemble regularly and vote on all matters of taxation, trial by jury was secured, and these were legitimized by the Bill of Rights. All protestants were granted toleration.
Louis XIV Crafted the absolute state in France, under him the state became a major player in everything from dredging rivers to awarding manufacturing monopolies. He was the first to hold as much personal authority or command such a vast and effective military and administrative machine. However, he overspent and damaged the state’s finances, creating discontent of French manufacturers which after his death contributed to the French Revolution of 1789
Peter the great and St. Petersburg
bourgeoisie republic (Netherlands) The Low Countries, the seven Dutch provinces and Belgium, manufacturing and banking center of the Spanish empire. Richest state in Europe.
Created by: ambermb319
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