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8th SS - Chapter 12

Chapter 12:An Age of Reform

social reform organized attempts to improve conditions of life
predestination the idea that God decided the fate of a person's soul
revival huge outdoor religious meeting
temperance movement an organized effort to end alcohol abuse and the problems created by it
prohibition total ban on the sale and consumption of alcohol
Dorothea Dix Massachusetts schoolteacher who took up the cause of prison reform
public schools free schools supported by taxes
Horace Mann man from Massachusetts who took up educational reform
abolitionists reformers who wanted to abolish (end) slavery
Fredrick Douglas born into slavery, famous and powerful abolitionist speaker
Harriett Tubman former slave who escorted more than 300 people to freedom via the secret Underground Railroad
women's suffrage right of women to vote
women's rights movement an organized effort to improve the political, legal, and economic status of women in American society
Seneca Falls Convention gathering formed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott to discuss the social, civil, and religious rights of women
Transcendentalism a movement that sought to explore the relationship between humans and nature through emotions rather than through reason; originated in the United States
Romanticism artistic movement originating in Europe that emphasized placing greater value on nature, emotions, and imagination rather than reason
Ralph Waldo Emerson leading transcendentalist and stressed individualism
individualism the unique importance of each individual
Henry David Thoreau transcendentalist who took up Emerson's challenge; spent 2 years in nature at Walden Pond; encouraged civil disobedience
civil disobedience the idea that people should peacefully disobey unjust laws if their consciences demand it
Herman Melville author of Moby-Dick
Nathaniel Hawthorne author of The Scarlet Letter
Louisa May Alcott author of Little Women
Underground Railroad network of people who secretly helped slaves reach freedom
Created by: MissMisiak