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Semester Review

Contribution of Magellan His crew was The first explorer to circumnavigate the world
Contribution of Columbus Discovered the Americas in 1492
Contribution of De Gama Sailed around the southern tip of Africa and established an all water route to India
Contribution of Vespucci Explored the coast of South America and America was named after him
Define Starving time in Jamestown Happened during the winter of 1609-1610 when there was little food with diseases, whereas only 60 out of 500 survived
Define Columbian Exchange Things that go back and forth between Europe and the Americas that never existed before
Define cash crops Crops grown in the Southern colonies that are sold for profit
Define indentured servant Person given passage to the new world and given freedom after working for several years
Define two physical features that separate U.S. from the world Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
Define compass rose Used to tell direction on a map
Define scale Used to determine distances on a map
Define Legend or Key Used to identify key features on a map
Define Appalachian mountains Key barrier to westward expansion
Define fundamental orders of Connecticut Signed in 1639, a set of laws by Puritans expanding the idea of representative government
Define mayflower compact Signed in 1620 by Pilgrims on the Mayflower to define how they would govern themselves
Define Intolerable Acts The laws that Parliament passed to the colonies such as closing Boston Harbor, depriving Massachusetts of self government, Allowing British soldiers to be tried in England, issued stronger quartering act for all colonies
Identify John Smith Key leader at Jamestown
Identify Representative government Government where people elect representatives to vote for them
Define Great migration The movement of people from Europe because of religious persecution
Define Quartering Act Required food for soldiers and making them stay in colonists’ homes
Define Stamp Act Required taxation on cards, newspapers, calendars, packages of dice, known as direct tax. Sons of Liberty were formed to protest the taxation
Define Townsend act Taxed important goods such as paper, led, glass, paint, tea, known as indirect tax. Daughters of Liberty were formed for the boycott
Define Sugar Act Required colonists to pay tax on sugar
Define Tea Act Colonists boycotted the tea even though East India company lowered the prices
Define Navigation Acts All shipping done in English ships. Tobacco, wood, and sugar are only sold to England or Colonies. European imports to colonies had to go through England or will be taxed.
Define Founding of Pennsylvania Founded by William Penn, One of the Quaker founders.
Define founding of New York The Dutch settled there, founding the New Netherlands. The Duke of York conquered them, combining New Netherlands and Duke of York into New York
Define founding of Georgia Founded by James Oglethorpe
Identify Thomas Paine Wrote “Common Sense” to cause colonists to motivate toward Independence. Also wrote “The Crisis” for colonists to engage battling even after several defeats
Define Enlightenment including key people The spread of idea of philosophy and science, which changed the way of government and life. Galileo, Newton, Locke, and Montesquieu were contributed in the Enlightenment
Define the Great Awakening including key people The Religious revival that influenced the colonies. Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield were contributed in the Awakening
Define proclamation of 1763 and why it upset the colonists so much Issued by King George the third to forbid colonists from moving west of the Appalachian mountains. Colonists were upset that their amount of land that they could own and profit from would be limited
Define Boston Massacre A massacre in Boston done by Captain Preston. 5 colonists died, and Crispus Attucks, former slave, was the first victim. Sam Adams worked to organize Committees of Correspondence
Define Boston Tea Party Form of civil disobedience done by colonists who dressed as Mohawk Indians and dumped 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor
Define “No Taxation without Representation” A phrase that reflected the resentment of the colonists at being taxed by Parliament to which they elected no representatives
Identify key grievances against King George the third Quartering of Soldiers, Intolerable Acts, and imposing taxes
Identify George Washington Commander of the Continental Army, later president of the Convention, and the 1st president of the U.S.
Identify Benedict Arnold Hero at the Battle of Saratoga but switched sides
Identify Patrick Henry Known for “GIVE ME LIBERTY OR GIVE ME DEATH!” speech at the 2nd constitutional congress. Delegate that didn‘t join the continental convention “I smell a rat.”
Reasons why the Americans won the Revolutionary war Outstanding military leadership, Fighting on homeland for freedom, and large territory to control
Advantages of the British during Revolutionary war More soldiers, supplies, money with established government. They had well trained army and strong navy. One third of colonists were loyal
Why Battle of Lexington and Concord is important First battle of the revolutionary war, happened on 4.19.1775
Why battle of Saratoga is important Became the Turning Point of the revolutionary war which the French later allied with the Americans, happened on October 1777
Why battle of Yorktown is important The last battle of the Revolutionary war when General Corn Wallis surrendered, happened on October 1781
Why the Winter at Valley Forge was important It is where Washington and his soldiers spent during the Winter of 1777-1778 when 2500 soldiers died there due to hunger, disease, and climate. Baron von Steuben taught them to use bayonets
Define Treaty of Paris 1763 Agreement that officially ended the French-Indian War. French lost land and resources. Western Boundary: Mississippi River, Southern Boundary: Spanish Florida
Define Treaty of Paris 1783 Agreement that officially ended the Revolutionary war and England accepted American Independence
Identify Marquis de Lafayette French volunteer that served under Washington during the Revolutionary war
Identify Baron Von Steuben Taught colonists at Valley Forge how to use Bayonets
Identify Bernardo De Galvez Spanish Volunteer who fought on the American side
Define Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Established Northwestern Territory
Define Land Ordinance of 1785 Divided up Northwestern land
Identify Northwestern territory Michigan, Ohio, Indiana
Define Magna Carta Made Kings and Queens have weaker power over the people against unjust treatment or Punishment. King John signed it on June 15, 1215
Identify Thomas Jefferson Wrote the Declaration of Independence
Identify James Madison Read books about government and made and became the Father of the Constitution
Identify John Adams Made negotiations with England during the Constitutional convention
Define Federalism state government and national government share power
Where was the Constitutional Convention held and what purpose was it held for? Held in Philadelphia, PA to fix the articles of confederation
Define Individual Rights Rights that cannot be denied by the government that belong to individuals
Define popular sovereignty The right of the people to rule
Define Republicanism Citizens have the right to vote on representatives
Define Separation of Powers Constitution separates the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial powers of Government
Define minutemen Civilian colonists who were sworn to fight with only a minute’s notice during the Revolutionary war
Define Loyalist Colonists who were loyal to England during the Revolutionary war
Define Writs of Assistance Passed by Parliament to stop the colonists from smuggling goods
Define Tariffs Tax paid on imports and exports
Define Unalienable rights Rights of Life, Liberty, and property which can’t be taken away
Define States’ rights Listed in the 10th amendment that states have more power than national government
Identify requirements to vote in the U.S. Citizen that is 18+ years old
Date for Magna Carta 1215
Date for English Bill of Rights 1689
Date for Jamestown establishment 1607
Date for Plymouth establishment 1620
Dates for starving time in Jamestown 1609-1610
Dates for French-Indian war 1754-1763
Date of Declaration of Independence 1776
Date of Articles of Confederation 1777
Date of U.S. constitution written 1787
Key crops and economics for New England colonies Shipping, Whaling, Trade, Shipbuilding, and Fishing. Subsistence farming with cattle for ranching and Dairy Farming due to less fertile soil
Key crops and economics in the middle colonies Corn, wheat, and raising cattle due to fertile soil
Key crops and economics in the Southern colonies Cash Crops such as Cotton, tobacco, indigo, rice were grown using slaves
Strengths of the Articles of Confederation Successfully waged the war for independence, negotiated the Treaty of Paris, passed the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, and issued money
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Weaknesses: No power over the state governments or their citizens, no power to regulate trade among states, and citizens thought that their property rights were threatened, made national government dependent for money
Differences between Virginia and New Jersey plan Virginia plan: One house where representation is determined by the states’ population New Jersey plan: One house where reprsentation is equal for all states
Key people and views of Federalists James Madison, John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, John Marshall. Favored strong central government
Key people and views of anti federalists John and Sam Adams, George Mason, and Patrick Henry. Constitution required Bill of Rights and were against strong central government
Key aspects of amendments 1-3 1st: Freedom of Speech, Religion, Press, Assembly, and Petition 2nd: Right to bear arms 3rd: No quartering soldiers in private homes
Key aspects of amendments 4-6 4th: No illegal searches or seizures 5th: No self incrimination, no double jeopardy, and due process of law 6th: Speedy public trial, trial by jury, right to counsel, rights of the accused, confrontation clause
Key aspects of amendments 7-10 7th: Trial by civil jury 8th: No excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishments 9th: protects rights not on the constitution 10th: States’ rights
Key aspects of amendments 11-15 11th: Judicial limits 12th: Electing President and Vice President 13th: Abolition of Slavery 14th: Citizenship rights 15th: Any Citizens can vote regardless of race
Key aspects of amendments 16-19 16th: Allows Congress to levy income taxes 17th: Senators voted by a popular vote 18th: Prohibition of alcohol 19th: Women have the right to vote
What is a strategy Overall plan to attack
Created by: K1517120



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