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TermDefinition
Christopher Columbus he was of Italian heritage who sailed for Spain
Christopher Columbus was in search of spices and gold
Christopher Columbus he believed a shorter path to the East Indies could be achievements by sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean
Christopher Columbus had three ships on his first voyage - the Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria
Christopher Columbus set sail in 1492
Christopher Columbus he made four voyages to the New World in total
Christopher Columbus opened the West economically through Colombian Exchange
Roanoke first attempt by Queen Elizabeth and England to colonize North America
Roanoke founded in Virginia (N.C.) by Sir Walter Raleigh
Roanoke Virginia Dare was first English white child born in America
Roanoke Spanish Armada stopped the resupply of colony
Roanoke colony disappeared before supply ships arrived
Roanoke one word was left on a tree- Croatan
Roanoke known as the Lost Colony
Pocahontas daughter of Chief Powhatan
Pocahontas important interpreter for Jamestown colony
Pocahontas she is captured and converted to Christianity in 1613
Pocahontas Christians give her the name Rebecca
Pocahontas she married an important, early plantation owner named John Rolfe
Pocahontas she is a sensation when she visits England in 1616
Pocahontas A son (Thomas) is born in England and she dies there
Jamestown becomes the first permanent English settlement in the New World
Jamestown founded in 1607
Jamestown the colony is named after King James I (Scotland)
Jamestown run by Virginia Company (private company)
Jamestown most of the colonists died during the winter of 1609-1610 "Starving Time"
Jamestown the capital of Virginia from 1616-1699
Jamestown tobacco brought to this colony would make Virginia's wealth
Plymouth Pilgrims founded in 1620
Plymouth the colonists were led by William Bradford
Plymouth many of the colonists were attempting to escape religious persecution
Plymouth the colony was supposed to be located at the mouth of the Hudson River (New York)
Plymouth the Pilgrims crossed the Atlantic on the Mayflower (the speedwell leaked too much)
Plymouth Plymouth Rock symbolizes the spot it was founded
Plymouth Plymouth was absorbed by Massachusetts in 1691
Arthur Miller well-known American playwright
Arthur Miller among Miller's famous plays is Death of a Salesman
Arthur Miller he also wrote the crucible in 1953
Arthur Miller the crucible details the Salem Witch Trials
Arthur Miller the play is an allergory for the McCarthy Trials
Arthur Miller Miller was convicted of "contempt of Congress" for not disclosing "communists" in the industry
Arthur Miller Miller was married briefly to Marilyn Monroe
George Washington British officer during the French and Indian War
George Washington commander of Revolutionary Forces-Continental Army
George Washington presided over Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia
George Washington 1st president and only one elected unanimously
George Washington established important groundwork for future presidents - the cabinet and inaugural address
George Washington owned a large plantation in Virginia named Mount Vernon
George Washington only founding Father to emancipate all his slaves at death (no children)
Patrick Henry famous for "Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death"
Patrick Henry was an attorney, plantation owner, and politician from Virginia
Patrick Henry he led the opposition to the Stamp Act
Patrick Henry believed in Republicanism, focusing on liberty and unalienable rights
Patrick Henry he became the first post-colonial governor of Virginia
Patrick Henry was opposed to the constitution
Patrick Henry like many founding fathers, owned slaves
Boston Massacre occurred in 1770, known as Incident on King Street by British
Boston Massacre crown appointed English troops were surrounded by mob of hecklers throwing objects
Boston Massacre five killed and six wounded
Boston Massacre among the dead was a free black man, Crispus Attucks
Boston Massacre soldiers were defeated by John Adams
Boston Massacre eight were charged, two convicted of manslaughter and branded
Boston Massacre Paul Revere engraving immortalizes event
Stamp Act first direct tax on colonists imposed by England and Parliament
Stamp Act tax paid for troops stationed in America after the French and Indian War
Stamp Act all paper taxed with Stamp produced in London
Stamp Act Americans could only pay tax with British Pound and not colonial script
Stamp Act act was repealed in 1766
Stamp Act it was replaced by the Declaratory Act
Stamp Act colonists begin the refrain "No Taxation Without Representation"
Common sense written anonymously in early 1776
Common sense Thomas Paine later known as author
Common sense Paine emigrated from England in 1774
Common sense written in plain, simple language
Common sense Paine argued that it was ridiculous for an island country to rule a continent and Britain ruled only out of self interest
Common sense became the largest circulated document in American history in relation to population
Common sense John Adams stated "without the pen of the author of ______, the sword of Washington would have been raised in vain"
Paul Revere his father was an immigrant from France and named Apollo Rivoire
Paul Revere main occupation was that of silversmith
Paul Revere became famous for Boston Massacre engraving
Paul Revere participated in the Boston Tea Party
Paul Revere set signal at the Old North Church of "one if by land, two if by sea"
Paul Revere one of three riders to warn the residents of Lexington and Concord - William Dawes and Dr. Samuel Prescott
Paul Revere Henry Wadsworth Longfellow immortalizes Revere in 1861 with "The Midnight Ride" poem
Declaration of Independence principally written by Thomas Jefferson with input from John Adams, edited by Congress
Declaration of Independence congress unanimously approved the Declaration by vote on July 2, 1776 (John Adams argument)
Declaration of Independence the document was signed July 4, 1776 and then lost
Declaration of Independence established the United States of America
Declaration of Independence engrossed (official) copy was signed on August 2, 1776
Declaration of Independence 56 delegates signed the Declaration
Declaration of Independence John Hancock signed it big for the king to see it
Declaration of Independence after a long journey, including Library at Congress and Fort Knox, it sends up at the National Archives
Thomas Jefferson author of the Declaration of Independence
Thomas Jefferson 3rd president of the United States
Thomas Jefferson anti-federalist - known as the father of the Democratic Party
Thomas Jefferson acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 from France and Napoleon
Thomas Jefferson has one of the most unique homes in the country at Monticello
Thomas Jefferson founder of the University of Virginia
Thomas Jefferson had several children with slave Sally Hemmings
Thomas Jefferson died on July 4, 1826, same day as John Adams
Bill of Rights came about through anti-Federalists push
Bill of Rights central figures were John Hancock and Samuel Adams
Bill of Rights James Madison proposed 39 additions
Bill of Rights 12 were accepted by congress
Bill of Rights 10 were voted on and passed by the stairs
Bill of Rights it provides protection from the government (speech, etc.)
Bill of Rights influenced by George Mason's 1776 Virginia Declaration of Rights, 1689 English Bill of Rights and 1215 Magna Carta
Lewis & Clark Expedition also called the Corps. of Discovery, 1804-1806
Lewis & Clark Expedition led by Captain Meriwether Lewis and second Lieutenant William Clark
Lewis & Clark Expedition they were the first American expedition to cross western U.S.
Lewis & Clark Expedition the voyage was commissioned by Thomas Jefferson
Lewis & Clark Expedition departed from St. Louis in May 1804
Lewis & Clark Expedition reached Pacific Ocean in November 1805 at the mouth of the Columbia River
Lewis & Clark Expedition three objectives were to map territory, find a possible direct water route, and establish American presence before Europeans
Sacagawea she was a member of the Shoshone tribe
Sacagawea kidnapped at age 12 by Hidatsa tribe
Sacagawea purchased, or perhaps won in card game, by French trader Toussaint Charbonneau - also acquired Otter Woman at the same time
Sacagawea married at the age of 13
Sacagawea became an important interpreter and guide for Meriwether Lewis and William Clark at age 16
Sacagawea traveled from Fort Mandan, North Dakota to Pacific Ocean and back (began trip pregnant with her first child)
Sacagawea is on the 2000 gold dollar coin
Tecumseh member of the Shawnee tribe
Tecumseh his name translates to "shooting star"
Tecumseh father was killed by frontiersmen who were squatting on land illegally
Tecumseh he will organize one of the strongest Indian Alliances known as the Tecumseh Confederacy
Tecumseh founded Prophetstown near present-day Lafayette
Tecumseh confederacy was severely damaged at Battle of Tippecanoe
Tecumseh died at the Battle of Thames during the War of 1812 - Harrison was opposing general
Louisiana Purchase a slave uprising in Haiti led Napoleon to sell Louisiana to the United States in 1803
Louisiana Purchase the U.S. paid approximately 11 million for the land and 4 million for cancellation of debt, 15 million total
Louisiana Purchase the total price came out to roughly 3 cents an acre (42 cents in 2010 dollars)
Louisiana Purchase it instantly doubled the size of the United States
Louisiana Purchase Jefferson originally asked for the city of New Orleans only, willing to pay 2 to 10 million
Louisiana Purchase Jefferson overstepped Constitutional bounds claiming it was a treaty negotiation
Louisiana Purchase the purchase did not account for slaves and Natives who lived there
William Henry Harrison first governor of the Indiana Territory
William Henry Harrison ran for president under the catch phrase Tippecanoe and Tyler Too - nicknamed gained after Battle of Tippecanoe
William Henry Harrison last British subject to be president
William Henry Harrison oldest elected president (68) until Ronald Reagan in 1981 (69)
William Henry Harrison held the shortest term in office - 32 days
William Henry Harrison became the first president to die in office
William Henry Harrison official cause of death was pneumonia - Harrison had given the longest inaugural speech in history in cold and rainy conditions without a coat or umbrella
Star Spangled Banner written by Francis Scott Key during the bombardment of Fort McHenry in Chesapeake Bay of British (near Baltimore)
Star Spangled Banner writer was a lawyer and an amateur poet
Star Spangled Banner he set the lyrics to the popular British song "To Anacreon in Heaven"
Star Spangled Banner he titled it "The Defence of Fort McHenry"
Star Spangled Banner four stanzas are in song, we sing only one
Star Spangled Banner it became the official National Anthem in 1931 by decree of President Herbert Hoover
Star Spangled Banner the flag that inspired the song is currently on display in Washington, D.C. at the National Museum of American History
Andrew Jackson born in North Carolina in 1767
Andrew Jackson he was beaten and his brother was killed by the British during the Revolution
Andrew Jackson moved across the Appalachians into Tennessee at the age of 21
Andrew Jackson became famous at the Battle of New Orleans in the War of 1812 - allied with Creek Indians
Andrew Jackson ruthless towards Natives and gained nickname "Sharp Knife"
Andrew Jackson Whites nicknamed him"Old Hickory"
Andrew Jackson became the 7th president, and first west of Appalachian Mountains
Andrew Jackson brought democracy to the masses
Missouri Compromise approved in 1820 by congress, it was a plan for western territories of Louisiana Purchase and balancing of free and slave states
Missouri Compromise everything north of latitude 36 degrees 30 minutes was free
Missouri Compromise this state would only be exception to rule
Missouri Compromise Maine split from Massachusetts to counter Missouri's entrance as slave state
Missouri Compromise repealed in 1854 by Kansas-Nebraska Act and idea of "popular sovereignty"
Missouri Compromise the Supreme Court also ruled Compromise unconstitutional in the Dred Scott Case (1857)
Missouri Compromise its legacy is the postponement of the Civil War
Erie Canal known as Clinton's Ditch or Folly, was named after New York governor Dewitt Clinton
Erie Canal constructed from 1817-1825
Erie Canal became one of the longest canals in the Western Hemisphere at 363 miles
Erie Canal connected the Hudson River with Lake Erie
Erie Canal also connected Albany with Buffalo
Erie Canal cut shipping costs by 95%
Erie Canal made New York City the nations #1 port
Wabash and Erie Canal longest canal in U.S history at 468 miles
Wabash and Erie Canal proposed by George Washington as a mean to connect east and west
Wabash and Erie Canal used to promote trade, agriculture, and settlement
Wabash and Erie Canal ground broken in Fort Wayne on 2/22/1832 by Jordan Vigus
Wabash and Erie Canal canal entered Logansport in 1838
Wabash and Erie Canal finished canal began in Toledo, Ohio and ended in Evansville, Indiana
Wabash and Erie Canal last boat through Logansport The Clyde entered in 1875
National Road first major improved government founded highway, traveling east to west
National Road surface was made of Macadam - chip and seal over stone
National Road encouraged settlement to the west
National Road began in Cumberland, Maryland in 1811 and ended in Vandalia, Illinois in 1850
National Road 600 miles in total length
National Road cost $7 million
National Road today's U.S. 40 runs along same route
Sojourner Truth born Isabella Baumfree into slavery in New York
Sojourner Truth African-American abolitionist and women's rights leader
Sojourner Truth spoke only Dutch until the age of nine when she was sold
Sojourner Truth new master acquired her $100 and some sheep
Sojourner Truth John Pumont broke promise to free her and she escapes with daughter in 1826 (7/4/1827)
Sojourner Truth known for 1851 Ain't I a Woman speech
Sojourner Truth rewritten in Southern Style by Frances Gage in 1863
Elizabeth Cady Stanton activist, abolitionist, and suffragist from NY
Elizabeth Cady Stanton initiated first major effort in women's reform interested in divorce rights, birth control, and temperance
Elizabeth Cady Stanton held the first equal rights convention for women at Seneca Falls in 1848
Elizabeth Cady Stanton became famous for her Declaration of Sentiments - similar to Declaration of Independence
Elizabeth Cady Stanton founder of National Woman Suffrage Association
Elizabeth Cady Stanton opposed 14th and 15th Amendments based on idea black men should not get right to vote before women
Elizabeth Cady Stanton beliefs caused rival American Woman Suffrage Association to form
Susan B. Anthony was an activist, abolitionist, suffragist, and Quaker
Susan B. Anthony printed a weekly journal from 18668-1872 called the Revolution
Susan B. Anthony voted in the 1872 presidential race
Susan B. Anthony after arrest not allowed to testify at own trial and found guilty
Susan B. Anthony she refused to pay the $100 fine
Susan B. Anthony proposed Anthony Amendment to Congress in 1878 to allow women vote - eventually 19th Amendment
Susan B. Anthony first non-fictitious woman - Lady Liberty - to be on American money, 1979 - 1981 $1 coin
The Alamo Spanish Mission located in present-day San Antonio
The Alamo Texans forced out Mexican rulers
The Alamo President Santa Ana - Mexico - comes back with army to destroy the Alamo
The Alamo thirteen day battle leaves all the defenders of The Alamo dead, some 185 men
The Alamo among the important dead are William Travis and James Bowlie
The Alamo Texans fightback with rallying cry... "Remember The Alamo"
The Alamo today it is the biggest tourist attraction in Texas
Oregon Trail began in Independence, Missouri and ended in Oregon City, Oregon
Oregon Trail total length of trail was 2,000 miles
Oregon Trail laid down by fur trappers prior to 1840 and was only accessibly by foot or horse
Oregon Trail 400,000 people used the trail at its height in 1840's
Oregon Trail deaths on the trail were mainly from cholera and dysentery
Oregon Trail trail declined after opening of transcontinental railroad- 1869
Oregon Trail today's I-80 roughly follows same route
Transcontinental Railroad connected Council Bluffs, Iowa with San Francisco, CA
Transcontinental Railroad total length of track was 1,900 miles
Transcontinental Railroad first proposed by Asa Whitney in 1845
Transcontinental Railroad Northern Republicans picked central route during Civil War while Democrats were gone
Transcontinental Railroad construction took six years, ending at Promontory Point, Utah with golden spike in 1869
Transcontinental Railroad first known as the Pacific Railroad
Transcontinental Railroad dramatically increased settlement and economic development of the Wesst
James K. Polk 11th and earliest photographed president, 1845-1849
James K. Polk prior to the White House, he was speaker of the House and governor of Tennessee
James K. Polk won election with promise to annex Texas
James K. Polk responsible for opening the Naval Academy and the Amithsonian while in office
James K. Polk led the U.S. during the Mexican War
James K. Polk accomplished all of his agenda
James K. Polk died of cholera three months after term
Kansas - Nebraska Act proposed by Illinois Democrat Stephen Douglas
Kansas - Nebraska Act opened new territories of Kansas and Nebraska to the possibility of slavery
Kansas - Nebraska Act residents of the territories decided by popular sovereignty - democracy
Kansas - Nebraska Act its passage repealed the Missouri Compromise
Kansas - Nebraska Act Douglas' hope that thousands of farms in territories would make transcontinental railroad feasible - Chicago
Kansas - Nebraska Act the North cried of slave power and slaveocracy
Kansas - Nebraska Act led to the Republican Party - Lincoln - and Bleeding Kansas
Harriet Beecher Stowe daughter of religious leader Lyman Beecher
Harriet Beecher Stowe she was an abolitionist and author
Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote weekly serial in Newspaper National Era
Harriet Beecher Stowe the serial's title, Life Among the Lowly, would eventually be retitled Uncle Tom's Cabin
Harriet Beecher Stowe she received $400 for the original publication of the book
Harriet Beecher Stowe after the war she helped found the University of Hartford
Harriet Beecher Stowe she died as a complication of dementia
Millard Fillmore 13th president of the United States, 1850-1853
Millard Fillmore assumed the presidency after war hero Zachary Taylor's death
Millard Fillmore last president from the Whig Party
Millard Fillmore after term in office become part of the American Party known for being anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic-Nativism
Millard Fillmore ran for president on American ticket in 1856 finishing third
Millard Fillmore founded the University of Buffalo
Millard Fillmore consistently ranked in the bottom ten of U.S. presidents
Created by: Elisabetmiguel