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Eastern part of the Roman empire Byzantine empire
capital city of Byzantine Empire Constantinople
built by who? Emperor Constantine
invaded and conquered by the? Ottoman Turks
the largest christian city in Europe during the middle ages; strongest most-advanced Constantinople
3 reasons Constantinople was impressive 1. surrounded by water strong defense 2. controls trade btwn Mediterranean & black sea; center of cultural diffusion 3. legal codes, art and architecture; inherited Roman culture gave historical advantage
Byz Empire reached peak under which ruler? Emperor Justinian
Who was he married to? What was she? Theodora, a courtesan
Which lands did they conquer? huge parts of what was the western Roman empire: North Africa, Italy, (only held land briefly)
the revolts of the upper and lower which resulted in the burning of the city Nika Revolts
Justinian wanted to flee but Theodora refused and enlisted General Belisarius what did he do to the people? assembled them in Hippodrome and slaughtered the rioters
Justinians 3 main achievements 1. rebuilding Constantinople from the Nika revolts 2. building the Hagia Sophia 3. establishing a cod of law called Justinians code
church of the holy wisdom hagia sophia
Justians biggest failure was? leaving the Byz empire nearly bankrupt lead to attacks
What was infuential in the Byz empire as it was in Western Europe christianity
Differences btwn East and West Christianity the pope v Emperor priests can be married greek is eastern; latin is western less emphasis on christmas/holidays in East
2 things central to Byz culture were Emperor and Christianity
emperor was ordained by God and was the? deputy to Jesus Christ on earth
a dispute over what contributed to tensions btwn East and West Christianity icons
conflict led to resentment against the Pope in the Byzantine Empire against icons; split between Eastern and Western Christianity known as the The Great Schism in 1054
correct opinion orthodox
two churches that came from the split the Eastern Orthodox Church Roman Catholic Church
the Eastern Orthodox temporarily empowered the emperor, but was at a disadvantage why? but could no longer rely on West w/o allies and was left vulnerable
Constantinople fell to the? Turns in 1453
the city was renamed to? Istanbul and became the capital
Hagia Sophia was turned into? Islamic center of worship/mosque
emerged as the great center of Islamic culture Istanbul
What was Byz heritage? continuing knowledge of Rome, the Byz culture, Eastern Orthodox the influence of Russia and Eastern Europe
two characteristics of the Byzantine art and architecture both religious and political but symbolic not realistic; in form of mosaic - two-dimensional,colorful,
as a result of the intertwining of religion and politics many works reveal the emperor as? head of the church
paintings or sculptures of sacred figures, and were controversial bc some considered veneration of icons to constitute to idolatry
people who objected icons were called iconclasts
iconbreakers iconclasts
Emperor Leo III forbid the used of icons and ordered their destruction, but this was an unpopular decision amongst the clergy
the clergy used the icons to what teach the illiterate about Christianity
russia develops into the northeast of the Byz empire
northern europeans perhaps vikings who joined the Slavs to establish the state of Kievan Rus based in the city of Kiev the Rus
major trade city Kiev
2 reasons why the land is so culturally different 1. the influence of Byz culture and the Eastern orthodox 2. and the invasion of the mongols
1 example of Byz influence on russian art use of icons
2 byz monks who spoke Slavic language and converted many of the kieven Rus people to Christianity cyril and Methodius
two monks created cyrillic alphabet; based on greek
made Eastern Orthodox christianity the state of religion of Kievan Rus bc he was not want to give up alcohol; later became a saint Vladmir the 1st
economically and politically advantageous to establish stronger ties w the Byz
Invaders from the east mongol
(mongols were led by Gerghis Khan) but who conquered Kiev Rus established a Mingol state batu khan
this action strongly influenced the development of Russia by isolating Russia from the merging Christian West
emerges as the strongest city over Kiev Moscow
invaded from the south around the same time as the
prince of moscow recovery of Russia after Mongols established absolute rule adopted Byza. rituals and power structure limited the power of boyars called himself Tzar Ivan the Great
strengthens serfdom grandson of Ivan the terrible -centralized royal power; crush boyar privleges _ Later became insane: paranoia and anxiety kiled his own son bc sons wife was inappropriate and beat her causing miscarrage and his son upset Ivan the Terrible
Created by: fikott1