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Boards 3 CN & Reflex

Cranial Nerves and reflexes

QuestionAnswer
Cranial nerve I and function Olfactory, Sensory, sense of smell
Anosmia Sense of smell is lost
Parosmia Distorted sense of smell
Cranial nerve II and function Optic, sensory, visual acuity - snellen eye chart, peripheral vision, light reflex, consensual reflex, accommodation reflex
Light reflex CN II and III
Consensual Reflex CN III
Accommodation reflex CN II and III
Cranial Nerve III and function oculomotor, motor
Cranial Nerve IV and function Trochlear, motor
Cranial Nerve VI and function Abducens, Motor
Cranial Nerve V and function Trigeminal, Motor and Sensory. Motor: jaw jerk reflex, Sensory: corneal reflex, touch forehead
Cranial Nerve VII and function Facial, Motor and Sensory, facial expressions and taste to anterior 2/3 of the tongue (sweet, sour, salty)
Cranial Nerve VIII and function Vestibulo-Cochlear, Sensory Balance & Sensory Hearing
Cranial Nerve IX and function Glossopharyngeal, Sensory, Motor, Taste to the posterior 1/3 of the tongue (bitter)
Cranial Nerve X and function Vagus, Sensory, Motor, Gag reflex, muscles for larynx, carotid reflex (IX and X)
Cranial Nerve XI and function Spinal Accessory, Motor, Test scm and trapezius
Cranial Nerve XII and funtion Hypoglossal, Motor, Tests muscles of the tongue. Tested by asking the patient to stick out their tongue. Look for atrophy, deviation, and fasciculations
Jaw jerk reflex tests which nerve or root? CN V Trigeminal
Biceps reflex tests which nerve or root? C-5 level musculocutaneous nerve
Brachioradialis reflex tests which nerve or root? C-6 Level Radial nerve
Triceps reflex tests which nerve or root? C-7 Level Radial nerve
Pectoralis reflex tests which nerve or root? C-5 through T1 anterior throacic nerve
Patellar reflex tests which nerve or root? L2 through L4 Femoral Nerve
Posterior Tibial reflex tests which nerve or root? L5
Medial Hamstring reflex tests which nerve or root? L5
Achilles reflex tests which nerve or root? S-1 Level Tibial Nerve
Wexler Scale 0 absent even with reinforment
Wexler Scale 1 hypoactive or normal response with reinforcement
Wexler Scale 2 Normal
Wexler Scale 3 hyperactive
Wexler Scale 4 hyperactive with transient clonus
Wexler Scale 5 hyperactive with sustained clonus
Westphal's sign absense of any DTR, especially patellar; LMNL
Jendrassik's maneuver brings out reflex by cortical distraction
Corneal reflex afferent nerve or root CN V
Corneal reflex efferent nerve or root CN VII
Pharyngeal Reflex afferent nerve or root CN IX
Pharyngeal Refex efferent nerve or root CN X
Abdominal reflex nerve or root Upper T7 to T9, Lower T10 to T12
Cremasteric reflex afferent nerve or root femoral N.
Cremasteric reflex efferent nerve or root Genitofemoral nerve, L1, L2
Geigel's reflex nerve or root same as cremasteric
Plantar reflex nerve or root Tibial N. L4 to S2
Ciliospinal Reflex nerve or root Cervical Sympathetics
Oculocardiac Reflex afferent nerve or root CN V
Oculocardiac Reflex efferent nerve or root CN X
Carotid Sinus Reflex afferent Nerve or root CN IX
Carotid Sinus Reflex efferent Nerve or root CN X
Stroke up on lateral aspect of foot across ball of foot to great toe Babinski -dorsiflexion of great toe withsplaying of other toes
Stroke lateral malleolus to small toe Chaddock - babinski response
Stroke down tibial crest to ankle Oppenheim - babinski response
Squeeze the calf Gordon's calf- babinski response
Squeeze the achilles tendon Schaefer - babinski response
Tap the ball of the foot Rossolimo - plantar flexion of great toe with curling of other toes
Examiner presses the 4th toe downward and releases it with a snap Gonda - Dorsiflexion of the big toe
Examiner extends middle phalanx of patient and flicks distal phalanx down Hoffman - Flexion and adduction of the thumb and flexion of the fingers
Examiner sharply taps tips of the middle three fingers Tromner - Flexion of all the fingers including the thumb
Examiner strokes the pisiform of the patient Gordon's finger -flexion of wrist and fingers or thumb and index finger
Exminer strokes the distal ulnar side of the forearm nera the wrist Chaddock's wrist - flexion of wrist and extension and fanning of the fingers
Patient's hands placed together, palms up. Doctor hands jar patient's hands from below up. Babinski pronation - affected hand falls in pronation. Good hand remains horizontal
Examiner taps bewtween eyebrows with index finger Glabella - Tonic spasm of orbicularis muscle with closing of the eyes
Sharp tapping of the nose or middle of the upper lip Snout - exaggerated reflex contraction of the lips
UMNL Lesion of the brain and spinal cord not including the anterior horn cell
Lesion of the anterior horn cell out to the myoneural junction LMNL
UMNL paralysis spastic
UMNL DTR hyperactive
UMNL Pathological reflexes Present
UMNL Clonus Present
UMNL Tone Hypertonic
UMNL Reaction of Degeneration Absent
UMNL Atrophy Absent
UMNL Fasciculation Absent
UMNL Superficial Reflexes Absent
LMNL Paralysis Flaccid
LMNL DTR Hypoactive/absent
LMNL Pathological Reflexes Absent
LMNL Clonus Absent
LMNL Tone Hypotonic
LMNL Reaction of Degeneration Present
LMNL Atrophy Present
LMNL Fasciculation Present
LMNL Superficial Reflexes Absent
Created by: dc2bsoon