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Eng 3&4 NCFE Review

Terms to review for the final exam

allegory the presentation of an abstract idea through more concrete means; typically a narrative that has at least two levels of meaning. The first is the surface-level story line, which can be summed up by stating who did what to whom and when.
alliteration -the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words in a line of poetry. An example in Beowulf is: “Then Welthow went from warrior to warrior”
allusion – A reference to a mythological, literary, or historical person, place, or thing.
apostrophe A form of personification in which the absent or dead are spoken to as if present and the inanimate, as if animate.
caesura a pause dividing each line, with each part having two accented syllables to help maintain the rhythm of the lines; Example: He took what he wanted,/all the treasures
conflict – describes the tension between opposing forces in a work of literature. The most common conflicts are: person vs. person, person vs. self, person vs. fate, person vs. nature and person vs. society.
external conflict a struggle against an outside force (person against person, nature, society)
internal conflict a struggle between opposing needs, desires, or emotions within a character
diction – word choice intended to convey a certain effect.
denotation – dictionary definition of a word
connotation feelings and attitudes associated with a word
direct characterization -straightforward physical description, the narrator’s direct comments about the character’s nature
dramatic irony – occurs when the reader or viewer knows something that a character or characters does not know
dyanamic character – a character that changes in response to the actions through which he or she passes during a literary work.
epic – a long and formal narrative poem written in an elevated style that recounts the adventures of a hero of almost mythic proportions, who often embodies the traits of a nation or people.
flashback a scene that interrupts the action of a work to show a previous event
flat character – person or animal in whom the author emphasizes a single important trait.
foil a character, who by contrast with the main character, serves to accentuate that character’s distinctive qualities or characteristics.
foreshadowing a character, who by contrast with the main character, serves to accentuate that character’s distinctive qualities or characteristics.
frame story - is when a story is told within a narrative setting or frame—hence creating a story within a story
free verse is poetry that does not have regular patterns of rhyme and meter. The lines in free verse often flow more naturally than do rhymed, metrical lines and thus achieve a rhythm more like that of everyday human speech.
hyperbole A deliberate, extravagant, and often outrageous exaggeration. It may be used for either serious or comic effect. Ex.: I could sleep for a year
imagery words or phrases a writer uses to represent persons, objects, actions, feelings, and ideas descriptively by appealing to the senses of sight, smell, hearing, taste, and touch.
indirect characterization a character’s nature is revealed in his/her speech, thoughts, feelings or actions; the speech, thoughts, feelings or actions of other characters who interact with the character described.
kenning a metaphorical compound word or phrase substituted for a noun or name, which enhances meaning--For example, in Beowulf, “the Almighty’s enemy” and “sin-stained demon” are kennings that are used in place of Grendel
litotes -a deliberate understatement, especially when expressing a thought by denying its opposite. Ex.: Running a marathon in under two hours is no small accomplishment.
metaphor – A comparison of two unlike things not using like or as.
mood – the feeling or atmosphere that a writer creates for the reader
motif a reoccurring word, phrase, image, object, idea, or action in a work of literature. Motifs function as unifying devices and often relate to one or more major themes.
onomatopoeia the use of words that imitate or mimic the sounds associated with the objects or actions they refer to. Ex.: Nothing annoys me more than rapidly clicking your pen.
oxymoron – A form of paradox that combines a pair of opposite terms into a single unusual expression.
paradox Occurs when the elements of a statement contradict each other. Although the statement may appear illogical, impossible, or absurd, it turns out to have a coherent meaning that reveals a hidden truth.
personification -a figurative language technique where an object or idea is given human characteristics or human actions Ex.: “The wind stood up and gave a shout.”
point of view – The perspective from which a narrative is told.
1st-person limited narrator is a character in the story (I)
3rd-person limited narrator is not a character in the story, but zooms in on the thoughts and feelings of one (or a very few) character(s)
3rd-person omniscient narrator is not a character in the story but can tell us what all (or many) of the characters are thinking and feeling as well as what is happening in other places
pun – A play on words that are identical or similar in sound but have sharply diverse meanings. Puns can have serious as well as humorous uses.
round character – a complex, fully-rounded personality (three-dimensional)
rhyme Words rhyme when the sounds of their accented vowels and all succeeding sounds are identical, as in amuse and confuse. For true rhyme, the consonants that precede the vowels must be different.
end rhyme occurs at the end of lines
internal rhyme – occurs within the line
rhyme scheme – a pattern of end rhyme in a poem. It is charted by assigning a letter of the alphabet, beginning with a, to each line. Lines that rhyme are given the same letter.
couplet two successive lines of rhyming verse, often of the same meter.
blank verse unrhymed verse, usually referring to unrhymed iambic pentameter
free verse poetry that lacks a regular meter, does not rhyme, and uses irregular line lengths.
narrative poem – a poem that tells a story or an account of a situation or event
sonnet – a lyric poem of 14 lines, commonly written in iambic pentameter. The most common subject of a sonnet is love for a beautiful but unattainable woman.
satire – refers to the use of humorous devices like irony, under-statement, and exaggeration to highlight a human folly or a societal problem. The purpose of satire is to bring change.
setting refers to the time and place in which the action of a literary work occurs
simile – A comparison of two different things or ideas through the use of the words like or as. Ex. Her teeth gleamed like pearls.
situational irony occurs when a character or reader expects one thing to happen but something else actually happens
static character – a person or animal who changes very little over the course of a narrative. Things happen to these characters, but little happens in them.
style The writer’s characteristic manner of employing language.
suspense the quality of literature that makes the reader or audience feel uncertain or tense about the outcome of events
symbolism – the use of any object, person, place, or action that both has a meaning in itself and that stands for something larger than itself, such as a quality, attitude, belief, or value.
syntax The arrangement of words and the order of grammatical elements in a sentence.
theme – The central message of a literary work. The theme is the idea the author wishes to convey about the subject. It is expressed as a sentence or general statement about life or human nature.
tone – The writer’s or speaker’s attitude toward a subject, character, or audience, and it is conveyed through the author’s choice of diction, point of view, imagery, detail, and syntax.. Tone can be serious, humorous, sarcastic, indignant, objective, etc
understatement a technique of creating emphasis by saying less than is actually or literally true. It is the opposite of a hyperbole or exaggeration and is also a device of irony and/or satire.
verbal irony occurs when a speaker or narrator says one thing but means another.
Created by: wendyscruggs
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