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US History 1

Second Exam

Northwest Territory Area North of the Ohio River and West of Pennsylvania
Shay's Rebellion(1787) Massachusetts farmer Daniel Shays and 1200 compatriots, seeking debt relief through insurance of paper currency and lower taxes, attempted to prevent courts from seizing property from indebted farmers
Napoleon a military general and the first emperor of France, considered one of the world's greatest military leaders he revolutionized military organization and training, sponsored the Napoleonic Code, reorganized education and established the long-lived Concordat
Federalists one of the first national political parties; led by George Washington, John Adams and Alexander Hamilton, it favored a strong central government
Alexander Hamilton Federalist: a delegate to the Constitutional Convention and major author of the Federalist papers, was the United States' first secretary of the treasury.
Farewell Address George Washington's Farewell Address: urged Americans to avoid excessive political party spirit and geographical distinctions. In foreign affairs, he warned against long-term alliances with other nations.
John Adams John Adams was a Founding Father, the first vice president of the United States and the second president. a direct descendant of Puritan colonists from Massachusetts Bay Colony served on the First Continental Congress helped draft the Declaration of Indep
Barbary Pirates Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval was with North African with North African nations (1801-1805)
Francis Cabot Lowell From Boston: would study blue prints in London and would bring this knowledge back to Boston. He then would find an. engineer in Boston who would help his recreate it, like a spy.
Samuel Slater Father of the American Industrial Revolution(Coined by Andrew Jackson) and Father of the American Factory System; established his first mill in 1790 on the Blackstone River in RI. It was one of the first factories in the US. Built Slater mill successfully
Mill Girls Women who worked at texile mills during the industrial revolution who enjoyed new freedoms and independence not seen before
Hartford Convention meeting of New England federalists on Dec. 15, 1814, to protest the War od 1812; proposed seven constitutional amendments(limiting embargoes and changing requirements for office holding, declaration of war, and admission of new states), but the war ended
Old Ironsides USS Constitutiona wooden-hulled, three-masted heavy frigate of the United States Navy, named by President George Washington after the Constitution of the United States of America, the world's oldest commissioned naval vessel still afloat
Monroe Doctrine President James Monroe's declaration to congress on Dec. 2, 1823
Camp Meeting a form of Protestant Christian religious service originating in England and Scotland as an evangelical event in association with the communion season.
Sacagawea is known for her help to the Lewis and Clark Expedition in achieving their chartered mission objectives by exploring the Louisiana Territory.
Eli Whitney From Western Massachusetts, went to Yale, then moved to Georgia; made it easier to clean cotton by inventing the cotton gin.(Gin is short for engine)
Missouri Compromise Deal proposed by Kentucky senator Henry Clay in 1820 to resolve the slave/free imbalance in Congress that would result from Missouri's admission as a slave state; Maine's admission as a free state offset Missouri, and slave was prohibited in the remainder
War Hawks The Twelfth Congress that met from 1811 to 1813 included a number of young and outspoken members who were foes of Great Britain and supporters of expansion by the United States.
Peculiar Institution slavery. John C. Calhoun defended the "peculiar labor" of the South in 1828 and the "peculiar domestick institution" in 1830. The term came into general use in the 1830s when the abolitionist followers of William Lloyd Garrison began to attack slavery. me
Erie Canal Mist important and profitable of the canals of the 1820's and 1830's; stretched from Buffalo to Albany, connecting the Great Lakes to the East coast and making New York City the nation's largest port
Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743, in Shadwell, Virginia. He was a draftsman of the U.S. Declaration of Independence; the nation's first secretary of state, second vice president; and, as the third president, responsible for the Louisiana Purchase.
Cult of True Womanhood(Cult of Domesticity) consider to have been a prevailing value system among the upper and middle classes during the 19 century in the US and Great Britain This value system emphasized new ideas of femininity the woman's role within the home and the dynamics of work and family.
Impressment Drafted into British Navy, go West for cheaper land
Sylvester Graham Minister and lecturer; was a major figure of the 19th century dietary reform movement and was also known as the person behind Graham crackers.
Cavalier Myth Belief that all prosperous Southern planters were descendants from English Cavaliers.
Penny Press tabloid-style newspapers mass-produced in the United States from the 1830s onwards.
William Lloyd Garrison 1830 he started an abolitionist paper, The Liberator. In 1832 he helped form the New England Antislavery Society. When the Civil War broke out, he continued to blast the Constitution as a pro-slavery document, When the civil war ended, he at last saw the
Temperance restraint and moderation, if you're talking about alcohol, it means not just drinking in moderation, it means not having it at all. the movement appeared in the US in the 19th century,at first urging moderation in drinking but eventually seeking to outla
Potato Famine The Great Famine; that occurred in Ireland in 1845–49 when the potato crop failed in successive years. The crop failures were caused by late blight, a disease that destroys both the leaves and the edible roots, or tubers, of the potato plant.
Robert Fulton American engineer and inventor, is best know for developing the first successful commercial steamboat, the North River Steamboat (known as the Clermont) which carried passengers between NYC and Albany, NY.; also designed the world's first steam warship.
Blackstone Canal waterway linking Worcester, Massachusetts, to Providence, Rhode Island through the Blackstone Valley via a series of locks and canals during the early 19th century.
Elias Howard patented the first practical sewing machine It attracted little attention, and he moved to England to perfect it for use with leather and similar materials. When he returned the next year, he found that I. M. Singer was making and selling his sewing mach
Elias H. Derby was among the wealthiest and most celebrated of post-Revolutionary merchants in Salem, Massachusetts, and owner of the Grand Turk, the first New England vessel to trade directly with China.
Old Immigrants Northern and Western Europe, Came in smaller numbers, Mostly protestant, Mostly farmers, Most spoke English
Nativism is the political policy of promoting the interests of native inhabitants against those of immigrants. However, this is currently more commonly described as an anti-immigrant position
Xenophobia fear and hatred of strangers or foreigners or of anything that is strange or foreign.
Clipper Ships was a very fast sailing ship of the middle third of the 19th century. They were yacht-like vessels, with three masts and a square rig
Horace Mann an American educational reformer and Whig politician dedicated to promoting public education. He served in the Massachusetts State legislature.
John Humphrey Noyes was an American preacher, radical religious philosopher, and utopian socialist. He founded the Putney, Oneida, and Wallingford Communities, and is credited with coining the term "complex marriage".
McCormick Reaper were machines developed in the early 1800s to help farmers harvest grain. The first commercially successful reaper was built in 1831 by Virginia-born inventor Cyrus Hall McCormick (1809–1884), who patented it in 1834 and first sold it in 1840 in Virginia.
Enlightenment Revolution in thought in the eighteenth century that emphasized reason and science over authority of traditional religion
Trail of Tears Cherokees' own term for their forced removal, 1830-1839, from the Southeast to Indian lands (later Oklahoma); of 15,000 forced to march, 4,000 died on the way; called this because a lot of people died
Second Great Awakening Religious revival movement of the early decades of the nineteenth century, in reaction to the growth of secularism and rationalist religion; began the predominance of the Baptist and Methodist churches
Bill of Rights The first ten amendments to the Constitution; Written by James Madison in response to calls from several states for greater constitutional protection for individual liberties, lists specific prohibitions on governmental power.
Nat Turner became a preacher who claimed he had been chosen by God to lead slaves from bondage. In 1831, he led a violent insurrection.hid for six weeks but was eventually caught and later hung. The incident ended the emancipation movement in that region and led to
Fur Trade a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur. Since the establishment of a world fur market in the early modern period, furs of boreal, polar and cold temperate mammalian animals have been the most valued
Squatters a person who settles on land or occupies property without title, right, or payment of rent. a person who settles on land under government regulation, in order to acquire title
Oregon Trail Route of wagon trains bearing settlers from Independence, Missouri, to the Oregon County in the 1840's through the 1860's
Stephen Austin The Father of Texas;took over his father’s colonization of the Tejas region of Mexico. He was met with opposition from the newly independent Mexican government, but hoped to work things out within that system. When the Texas Revolution broke out, he was f
Mustang is a free-roaming horse of the American west that first descended from horses brought to the Americas by the Spanish.are often referred to as wild horses, but because they are descended from once-domesticated horses, they are properly defined as feral hor
Bison any of several large shaggy-maned usually gregarious recent or extinct bovine mammals having a large head with short horns and heavy forequarters surmounted by a large fleshy hump
Great Plains The first westward-bound pioneers bypassed the Great Plains. The railroads were largely responsible for their development after the Civil War. An initial wave of settlement was followed by emigration in times of drought.
Gold Rush a new discovery of gold that brings an onrush of miners seeking their fortune. Major gold rushes took place in the 19th century in Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Canada, South Africa and the United States, while smaller gold rushes took place elsewhere.
Know Nothings American Party; Nativist, anti-Catholic third party organized in 1854 in reaction to large-scale German and Irish Immigration; the party's only presidential candidate was Millard Fillmore in 1856
King Cotton phrase frequently used by Southern politicians and authors prior to the American Civil War, indicating the economic and political importance of cotton production. After the invention of the cotton gin, cotton surpassed tobacco as the dominant cash crop in
Daniel Boone In 1755, he left home on a military expedition during the French and Indian War. In 1769,led an expedition and discovered a trail to the far west though the Cumberland Gap. In 1775,settled an area he called Boonesborough in Kentucky, but faced Indian resi
A Midwife's Tale New Englander Martha Ballard (Kaiulani Lee) keeps a diary from 1785-1812 of her experiences delivering babies and settling disputes.
Amistad Case VS the US; was a United States Supreme Court case resulting from the rebellion of Africans on board the Spanish schooner La Amistad in 1839
Yeoman Famers Small landowners (the majority of white farmers in the Old South) who farmed their own land and usually did not own slaves.
Quock Walker was an American slave who sued for and won his freedom in June 1781 in a case citing language in the new Massachusetts Constitution that declared all men to be born free and equal
Chattel Slavery is what most people have in mind when they think of the kind of slavery that existed in the United States before the Civil War, and that existed legally throughout many parts of the world as far back as recorded history
Explain why Washington was a great president. Recommended Isolationism and Leadership qualities
How did the British lose the Revolutionary War? The Failure to Capture or Disband Washington’s Army, Parliament Opinion On The War Was Split, The Franco-American Alliance, Lack of Loyalist Support, Inability to Efficiently Supply the British Army
What was the significance of Shays's Rebellion? was a rebellion among farmers in MAthat began in 1786. It is important because it is seen as one of the major factors that led to the writing of the new Constitution. When the USfirst became independent, its constitution was called the Articles of Confede
Why was the China Trade important?
Explain why King Cotton was so influential.
Compare the North and the South 1750 and 1850. North was urban, commercial, congregational, good schools(could walk to them), good roads, heterogeneous. The South was rural, based on agriculture, had one church, no schools, bad roads, homogeneous.
Why was the antebellum era also called the Age of Reform? The reform movements that arose during the antebellum period in America focused on specific issues: temperance, abolishing imprisonment for debt, pacifism, antislavery, abolishing capital punishment, amelioration of prison conditions
What was the impact of the Lewis and Clark expedition?
Discuss the causes and consequences of the War of 1812. occurred between the United States and Great Britain between 1812 and 1814. Great Britain had violated American sovereignty by refusing to surrender western forts as promised in the Treaty of Paris after the Revolutionary War.
Why were Americans so inventive? Agriculture and labor saving inventions, reaper, interchangeable, cotton gin, sewing machine, steamboat
Explain Manifest Destiny. the 19th-century doctrine or belief that the expansion of the US throughout the American continents was both justified and inevitable.
Discuss the Louisiana Purchase. was a land deal between the United States and France, in which the U.S. acquired approximately 827,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi River for $15 million, Jefferson bought the land
Created by: briannab0126