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Ind. Rev. Quiz

Industrial Revolution Review for Quiz

What was Cornelius Vanderbilt (1794 - 1877)'s innovation (what did he work with)? RAILROADS
Cornelius Vanderbilt (1794 - 1877) built a railroad empire where by buying up what? In the NORTHEAST; bought up SMALLER RR COMPANIES
Cornelius Vanderbilt (1794 - 1877) controlled how many miles of railroad in the Northeast? 4,500 MILES
What was Andrew Carnegie (1835 - 1919)'s innovation (what did he work with)? STEEL
What is vertical integration? A COMPANY'S CONTROL of a CHAIN of several other BUSINESSES or that help to PRODUCE or DISTRIBUTE a product
What method did Andrew Carnegie (1835 - 1919) use to control many businesses? VERTICAL INTEGRATION
What different businesses did Andrew Carnegie (1835 - 1919) control? Almost EVERYTHING, from MINING IRON ORE to RAILROADS, WAREHOUSES, STEAMSHIPS and FACTORIES
Andrew Carnegie (1835 - 1919) was a world-famous what? DONOR (of his MONEY)
How much of his fortune did Andrew Carnegie (1835 - 1919) give away before his death? 90% was DONATED to CHARITIES
What was John D. Rockefeller (1839 - 1937)'s innovation (what did he work with)? OIL
Instead of drilling for oil, John D. Rockefeller (1839 - 1937) instead controlled this by building what? Controlled the MARKETS by building REFINERIES
What is a refinery? A place where a material is processed or "cleaned" from unwanted substances to make it pure
In 1882, John D. Rockefeller created what? STANDARD OIL (a refining, transporting and marketing company)
What was Cornelius Vanderbilt (1794 - 1877) in terms of riches? The 3RD RICHEST AMERICAN in the US
What was Andrew Carnegie (1835 - 1919) in terms of riches? The 2ND RICHEST AMERICAN in the US
What was John D. Rockefeller (1839 - 1937) in terms of riches? THE RICHEST AMERICAN in the US
When was the Age of Invention and how many patents were issued by the US government at this time? 1870 - 1890; over 500,000 NEW PATENTS were issued
What happened in 1876? ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL invented the TELEPHONE, thus sparking the BELL TELEPHONE COMPANY
What happened in 1882? THOMAS EDISON invented ELECTRIC LIGHTING, thus sparking the first POWER PLANT in NEW YORK CITY
What happened in 1888? GEORGE EASTMEN invented the KODAK CAMERA
What happened in 1896? GUGLIELMO MARCONI invented the RADIO
Why were factory conditions so bad? LONG HOURS, LOW PAY, DANGEROUS CONDITIONS
Which workers had the worst conditions? STEEL workers, TEXTILE workers, MINERS
What was the average wage in 1900? 22₵ PER HOUR
How many children were working under the age of 15 during the late 1800's? Over 2 MILLION CHILDREN
How many women were working during the late 1800's? 1 MILLION
What were labor unions? Groups that JOINED TOGETHER to fight for BETTER WAGES, SHORTER HOURS and SAFER CONDITIONS
How many people belonged to a union in 1900? 1 IN 12 PEOPLE
When was the American Federation of Labor (AFL) established and by whom? Established in 1886 by SAMUEL GOMPERS
The AFL was only open to what kind of workers? SKILLED WORKERS ONLY
People joined these (smaller groups) that later joined the AFL and vice versa TRADE UNIONS
What was collective bargaining? RIGHTS of UNIONS to negotiate WAGES with MANAGEMENT as a group
How many members were a part of the American Federation of Labor in 1910? Over 500,000 MEMBERS
Where did the Homestead Strike occur? At CARNEGIE'S STEEL FACTORY
When was the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory tragedy? 1911 (The BEGINNING of BETTER CONDITIONS for WORKERS)
The International Ladies' Garment Workers Union was the first successful what that won what? First SUCCESSFUL STRIKE that WON BETTER WAGES for the women