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EOC Review Packet

Questions and Answers for 1-100 of the EOC review packet

1. What was the Virginia Company and what was its purpose? It was a joint stock company founded by some British men. The purpose was to establish a colony in America and to make money (look for gold).
2. What role did tobacco play in the Virginia colony? It became the basis for Virginia’s economy and ultimately helped start slavery in the colonies.
3. How did the Virginia colonists interact with the Natives in the area? They took their land and forced them to move west. As a whole their relationship was very rocky at best.
4. What was the House of Burgesses? The legislature in Virginia.
5. What was Bacon’s Rebellion? Nathaniel Bacon gathered an army to support some settlers in Western Virginia. They burned down Jamestown and at one time controlled most of Virginia.
6. What factors led to the development of slavery in the colonies The establishment of the tobacco industry created a need for workers. The plantation owners eventually turned to slaves to fill this role.
7. Why did many settlers come to New England? To escape religious persecution in England.
8. Who was John Winthrop and what were his beliefs? Founder of the Massachusetts Bay colony. He believed the Puritan community should be well ordered so they would have a well ordered colony. His view was the Puritans communities would be a “City upon the hill.”
9. What was King Philip's War? King Phillip (Metacom) and his Indians attacked the settlers in an attempt to drive the English out of North America. They did a lot of damage until some of the Indians switched sides and helped the English.
10. What was the halfway covenant? The Half-Way Covenant provided a partial church membership for the children and grandchildren of church members. These partial members, however,couldn't accept communion or vote.
11. Who were Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson? People who lived in Massachusetts and were kicked out for having beliefs that were different from the Puritans.
12. Discuss the founding of Rhode Island. Roger Williams was kicked out of Massachusetts and later founded Rhode Island. He founded the colony based on the idea of religious freedom.
13. What were the Salem Witch Trials? Several girls in Salem, Massachusetts claimed the Devil had taken control of them. They accused several people of being witches and a mass hysteria broke out. Twenty men and women were executed.
14. List the characteristics of the Middle Colonies. The middle colonies all allowed religious freedom. Their economies were based around the farming of grains and trade. There were merchants in the bigger towns like Philadelphia and New York.
15. Describe New Amsterdam and the power shift that resulted in New York. New Amsterdam was originally settled by the Dutch. They made money off the fur trade. The English took it over and renamed it New York.
16. Describe the Pennsylvania settlement. Settled by William Penn as a home for the Quakers. It allowed religious freedom and made its money off trade and farming.
17. Why did the French settle in Quebec? The French settled in Quebec because that is where they established the fur trade.
18. Define mercantilism. Describe the role of the colonies and the mother country. Mercantilism is an economic system that says you should get as much gold and silver as possible. The colonies role was to provide England with raw materials and be a market for England’s finished goods.
19. Describe the Middle Passage. It was the trip from Africa to the Americas for the slaves. Between 10-40% of the slaves died on the middle passage due to horrible conditions.
20. How did Benjamin Franklin illustrate the ideas of social mobility and individualism? He started off from moderate beginnings and made himself into one of the most important political figures of his time. He made his money as a printer and later became a political spokesman and inventor.
21. What was the Great Awakening and what were its effects? It was a series of revivals across the colonies that were created in an effort to get people focused back on God.
22. What were the causes/effects of the French & Indian War? Causes:Britain and France had a rivalry previous to the forming of the colonies,The two fought over control of the Ohio River Valley.Results:England won the war,France had to give up all their land in Canada and lands east of the Mississippi to Britain
23. What was the Proclamation of 1763? How did the colonists feel about it? It stated that the colonists were not allowed to go any further west than the Appalachian Mts. The colonists responded by going where they wanted anyway.
24. What measures did the British take to subdue the colonists following the French & Indian The passed the Stamp Act, Sugar Act, Intolerable Acts, Quartering Act in an effort to make the colonies pay back some of the war debt and to finance the troops stationed in the colonies.
25. What was the significance of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense? It was a pamphlet that was passed around and it tried to convince people to breakaway from Britain.
26. Who was John Locke and what influence did he have on the American Revolution? He was an early Enlightenment thinker. His ideas on government were used in the Declaration of Independence.
27. Discuss the role of Thomas Jefferson in the writing of the Declaration of Independence. He was given the task of writing the Declaration of Independence.
28. Why did the French assist the colonists in the Revolutionary War? The hated the English from the French & Indian War and this gave them a chance to get back at the English.
29. Who was the Marquis de Lafayette? He was a French military officer who helped out the colonists in the revolution.
30. Describe the military leadership of George Washington. He was a tough leader who was able to win battles even though his troops were not well trained and lacked resources. He was considered a national hero by most Americans and went on to be the first President.
31. Why was the crossing of the Delaware River so notable? It was done in the dead of winter when people normally didn’t fight. The troops had to brave tough conditions and ended surprising the Hessians at Trenton.
32. What was the significance of Valley Forge? The soldiers spent the whole winter in harsh conditions with very little supplies. It showed how determined they were to be free from Britain.
33. What happened at Yorktown? It was where Cornwallis surrendered to George Washington and the Revolution ended.
34. Who was Lord Cornwallis? He was the leader of the British troops during the Revolution.
35. Discuss the provisions of the Treaty of Paris, 1783. America became an independent country, Britain removed all troops from the US, the US now had land all the way to the Mississippi River in the West and the Great Lakes in the North.
36. What were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation? Weak national government, no national military, no national economic policies, no national court system
37. What was Shay’s Rebellion? How did it illustrate the need for a stronger central government? It was a rebellion led by farmers in Massachusetts who were upset over being taxed so heavily.
38. Who were the Federalists and what were their beliefs? The Federalists were people who wanted a strong national government. They supported the constitution but preferred a very “loose” interpretation of it.
39. Who were the Anti-federalists and what were their beliefs? The Anti-federalists were people who wanted a limited national government with most of the power belonging to the states. They preferred a very “strict” interpretation of the constitution.
40. What role did the Federalist Papers play in the ratification of the Constitution? They were papers written by Federalists in an attempt to sway people into backing the constitution.
41. What role did Alexander Hamilton play at the Constitutional Convention? Hamilton was a Federalist so he was very instrumental in making sure that the Constitution made the national government very strong.
42. What role did James Madison play at the Constitutional Convention? Madison was a Federalist who attended all the meetings and took detailed notes.He is often referred to as the “Father of the Constitution.”
43. What was the Great Compromise? It took the ideas of the Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan and merged them. It said that the senate would get equal representation from all states while the House of Representatives would be based on population.
44. What is the idea of ‘separation of powers’? It is the idea that you should have different branches of government so that no branch gets to powerful.
45. How was slavery addressed in the Constitution? They came up with the 3/5 compromise which stated that a state could count 3/5 of their state’s slaves towards their population total.
46. What is the function of the Bill of Rights in the lives of American citizens? The Bill of Rights was put into the Constitution to appease the Anti-Federalists.Its role is to plainly spell out what rights citizens in the US have.
47. What precedents did George Washington set? He established what to call the president; he selected the first “cabinet” members.He served two terms as President.
48. What was the significance of George Washington’s farewell address? He pointed out two key items in his speech: 1) the need for the US to stay neutral in regards to foreign policy 2) he warned against having political parties
49. What were the major events of John Adams’ presidency? XYZ affair, Alien & Sedition Act
50. What was the Whiskey Rebellion? Some farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against the taxes being placed on Whiskey. Hamilton had placed a tax on against having political parties
51. What were the first political parties and how did they develop around the Election of 1800? The first political parties were the Federalists and the Jeffersonian Republicans.The developed as people adopted differing views of the constitution and other key issues.
52. What was the Northwest Ordinance and how did it affect westward migration? It established a process by which territories in the West could become states. As these places became states more people migrated there and bought land for cheap prices.
53. Discuss the Louisiana Purchase. We sent representatives to France to buy New Orleans for $10 million. Napoleon needed money to finance his wars in Europe so he sold all of the Louisiana Territory for $15 million. It doubled the size of the United States.
54. Discuss the Lewis and Clark expedition. Lewis and Clark were hired to explore the Louisiana Territory and map out everything. They were to look for river routes to the Western Ocean (Pacific), make contact with the Native Americans, and gather information about natural resources.
55. Discuss the construction of the Erie Canal. It was built by the state of New York in 1825. It connects the Great Lakes region to the Atlantic Ocean.
56. What was the idea of Manifest Destiny? How did this affect our relationships with the Native Americans and the Spanish? How did this change the lifestyles of the Native Americans? It was the idea that the US had the right to expand its borders. When they decided to move west, they ran into conflicts with the Indians. The Indians got shoved off their land and were all sent to what is today Oklahoma.
57. What were the major causes and effects of the War of 1812? The US thought Britain was behind the Indians attacking the settlers. They also didn’t like how the British were stopping American ships and “impressing” their people. The US won the war and Britain gave up all their lands in America.
58. How did America emerge from the war with a greater sense of national identity and pride? It showed that America was willing to fight for their country and that they could stand up to bigger powers like Britain. This helped unite the American people.
59. What was the Monroe Doctrine? Why was it such an important speech/document? It stated that America would not interfere with Europe’s business. European countries could keep their claims in North America, but they would not be allowed to make any future claims. This doctrine established our foreign policy for many years.
60. How did Eli Whitney’s inventions of the cotton gin and interchangeable parts revolutionize the country? The interchangeable parts allowed things to be mass produced for a cheaper price. The cotton gin made cotton production easier and thus cotton remained “king” in the South. It also helped keep slavery going strong in the South.
61. What was Jacksonian Democracy? Describe the expansion of suffrage during his presidency. Political party led by Andrew Jackson. The democrats favored less government and more power to the states. Suffrage expanded during the election of 1828 when more states allowed all white males to vote and not just the ones who owned property.
62. In what ways did the issue of slavery divide the country? The South relied on the slaves as cheap labor for their farms and plantations. The North saw slavery as morally wrong and they opposed it. The debate was which states would be slave holding and which ones would not.
63. What was Nat Turner’s Rebellion? It was a rebellion led by a slave named Nat Turner. Turner and his group attacked several plantation killing nearly 50 people. Turner and his group were eventually killed for leading the rebellion.
64. Who was John C. Calhoun and what was the ‘nullification crisis’? John C. Calhoun was Vice President and later served in Congress. He led South Carolina’s fight against the Tariff of 1828. South Carolina didn’t like the Tariff and threatened to secede from the US over it.
65. Discuss the temperance movement. It was the movement to end alcohol consumption. The movement didn’t stop alcohol consumption but it did lower the amount that Americans were drinking.
66. Discuss the abolitionist movement. Be sure to mention William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, and the Grimke sisters. The abolitionist movement was the movement to end slavery. William Lloyd Garrison was a white abolitionist who edited The Liberator an anti-slavery newspaper. Frederick Douglas was a former slave who published the anti-slavery newspaper The North Star.
67. Discuss the reform of public schools. People stared calling for public school reform in the early 1800’s. The push was to have public schools funded by tax revenue. The schools were mainly for white males. A few girls and freed slaves did get educated.
68. Discuss the effort to gain women’s suffrage rights. Be sure to mention Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the Seneca Falls Convention. It was the movement to get women more rights. Some women like Elizabeth Cady Stanton wanted more far reaching changes. She helped start the Seneca Falls Convention. This convention was the first of its kind calling for women’s rights.
69. What was the Missouri Compromise? How did it relate to the issue of slavery in the western states and territories? It stated that Missouri would be added as a slave state and Maine would be admitted as a free state. It stated that any new states north of the 36-30 latitude line would be free. It did not address what would happen to “territories.”
70. What was the Compromise of 1850? Admitted California as a free state. New Mexico and Utah would decide for themselves on whether or not to have slavery. The Fugitive Slave law was part of this as well.
71. Discuss the renewed ‘nullification crisis’. John C Calhoun argued on behalf of South Carolina that the southern states had the right to leave the Union if it were necessary for their own protection.
72. Discuss the causes and effects of the Mexican War. The US annexed Texas, upset Mexico. They disagreed about where Texas' boundary would be.US sent troops into the Rio Grande it started the war. We gained California and New Mexico. Made problems of whether or not slavery would be allowed in the new areas.
73. What was the Wilmot Proviso? It stated that slavery would not be allowed in any of the new areas acquired from Mexico. It was never passed in Congress.
74. What was the Kansas-Nebraska Act? The Kansas-Nebraska act stated that the two areas had popular sovereignty and would decide for themselves whether or not to have slavery.
75. What was the significance of the Dred Scott case? It stated that slaves were not citizens and thus couldn’t sue. Slaves couldn’t win their freedom just by living in a free state. The Missouri Compromise was ruled unconstitutional and all territories were open to slavery.
76. What was John Brown’s Raid? He led a raid on a federal arsenal in Harper’s Ferry, Virginia. His goal was to take over the arsenal and arm the slaves with weapons so they could lead a revolt. He was caught and eventually hanged for his role in the raid.
77. Discuss Lincoln’s first and second inaugural addresses as well as the Gettysburg Address. What do they indicate regarding his goals to preserve the Union? Lincoln’s primary goal throughout most of the war was to preserve the union at all costs. He really hits home on this in the Gettysburg address.
78. Why did Lincoln suspended habeas corpus during the Civil War? He did this to keep the border states from becoming part of the confederacy. He put people in prison who spoke out against his policies and this showed how serious he was about his cause.
79. Discuss the importance of the following figures: Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, William T. Sherman, and Jefferson Davis. Ulysses S. Grant- Head of Union forces. Robert E Lee- Head of Confederate forces. Stonewall Jackson- Lee’s right hand man. William T Sherman- Marched through Georgia destroying everything. Jefferson Davis- President of the Confederate States of America
80. Discuss the importance of the following events: Fort Sumter, First Bull Run, Antietam, Vicksburg, Gettysburg, Battle for Atlanta, and Appomattox Courthouse. Fort Sumter- First battle of the Civil War. First Battle of Bull Run- First real fighting in the war.Antietam- Bloodiest single day of the war.Vicksburg- Union army lays siege to the city and starves out the Confederate soldiers. Union wins the battle.
80. Discuss the importance of the following events: Fort Sumter, First Bull Run, Antietam, Vicksburg, Gettysburg, Battle for Atlanta, and Appomattox Courthouse. Gettysburg- Bloodiest battle of the war, last 3 days. Union wins and dashes all hopes of the Confederates winning.Battle for Atlanta- William T. Sherman captures the city and sets it on fire.Appomattox Courthouse- Site of where Lee surrenders to Grant.
81. What was the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation? What slaves did it free? The emancipation proclamation declared all slaves in the southern states were to be set free. The Confederate states ignored it and thus it had little effect. The one thing it did do was to encourage slaves to try and escape to join the Union army.
82. Discuss the balance of wealth between the North and the South by comparing their resources and other strengths and weaknesses. (You may also refer to chapter 10.) The North’s economy was based on industry while the South’s economy was based on agriculture.The North had every possible advantage. The only areas that the South had an advantage in were they had better military leaders and also a greater will to win.
83. Compare and contrast Presidential Reconstruction with Radical Reconstruction. Presidential Reconstruction was seen as very lenient toward the South according to Radical Republicans.The Radicals saw the main goal of Reconstruction to be equality for African Americans.
84. Discuss the efforts to redistribute land in the South among former slaves. There were some efforts in the South to redistribute land to the former slaves, but overall there was never any real effort made by the national government to do this.
85. Discuss the Freedmen’s Bureau and the growth of educational opportunities for African Americans. The Freedman’s Bureau was set up to help freed slaves get on their feet. It provided them with money, clothes, food, etc to help them get a fresh start.
86. Discuss the significance of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments. (You may also refer to Chapter 11.) The 13-15th amendments are significant because they granted African Americans certain political rights. The 13th amendment ended slavery, the 14th gave them citizenship, and the 15th gave them the right to vote.
87. Explain the Black Codes, the KKK, and other forms of resistance to racial equality during Reconstruction. The Black codes were put in place to restrict rights that African Americans earned during Reconstruction. Most centered around keeping African Americans from voting. The KKK was a white supremacist group that arose during Reconstruction.
88. Discuss the impeachment of Andrew Johnson. Andrew Johnson was brought up on impeachment charges because of his firing practices. The House found Johnson’s firing of his Secretary of War was unconstitutional and impeached him. He fell one vote short of being removed from office.
89. How did the growth of the railroads affect other industries and the organization of big business? Railroads stimulated the economy by creating jobs and boosting other industries. The railroads opened up new markets for businesses and made shipping things faster and cheaper.
90. How did the railroads affect western development? Be sure to mention the transcontinental railroad and Chinese labor. (You may also refer to Ch. 14 & 15.) The transcontinental railroad connected the east with the west. It was built by immigrant workers such as the Mexicans and Chinese. Towns sprang up along the railroad lines and the west grew as the railroad industry grew.
91. Who was John D. Rockefeller? What was the Standard Oil Company? How did the two lead to the development of trusts and monopolies? John D Rockefeller owned Standard Oil. It grew into the largest oil company in the US during the late 1800’s. Rockefeller controlled all the factors of production related to his oil company. This made him extremely wealthy and helped created a monopoly.
92. Discuss the inventions of Thomas Edison and their effects on American life. Edison invented the light bulb and later worked on building power plants tosupply electricity.
93. What was the American Federation of Labor? It was a national labor union formed by Samuel Gompers in 1886. It was a craft union that organized workers that were part of a specific craft.
94. Who was Samuel Gompers? He was the head of the American Federation of Labor (AFL). He worked to improve workers wages and working conditions. He urged his members to use strikes and boycotts to negotiate.
95. Discuss the 1894 Pullman Strike. Workers for Pullman railroad cars went on strike to get better wages. Their strike disrupted western railroad traffic and the delivery of mail. The attorney general ruled in favor of Pullman and forbid all railroad activity that halted railroad traffic.
96. Discuss the growth of the western population and the effect on Native Americans. Be sure to mention Sitting Bull and Wounded Knee. The Native Americans were forced off their land and were moved to less desirable land further to the West.Sitting Bull was shot and killed as officers tried to arrest him and his fellow Indians were massacred(at Wounded Knee)
97. Describe Ellis Island. Ellis Island was located in the harbor of New York. Immigrants from Europe all came through Ellis Island on their way to America.
98. Discuss the change in the origins of many immigrants. In the mid to late 1800’s the immigrants to the US came mainly from the North and Western parts of Europe. By 1890 there was a shift in where the immigrants came from. They started coming from Southern and Eastern Europe.
99. Discuss the impact of immigration on urban America. Immigrants primarily settled in the large urban areas such as New York, Boston, and Philadelphia. These immigrants formed their own little communities inside the large cities where they would be surrounded by people that shared their same culture.
100. Who was Jane Addams and what was Hull House? How did women contribute to the reform movements? (You may also The Hull House was opened in Chicago to help immigrants. It later turned into a community center that provided social services for a number of different people. Women were behind the Hull House and other “settlement houses.”
Created by: akennedy06
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