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PCS US History

Supreme Court Cases

TermDefinition
Marbury v. Madison (1803) President Jefferson tried blocking activities of Federalist judges. Madison didn't deliver official papers giving Marbury position as justice of the peace. Established judicial review - federal courts could decide if laws are constitutional
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) Does government have the power to create a national bank? Doctrine of implied powers Do states have the rights to tax institutions created by the federal government? power of national government, over state government
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) 6th Amendment - upheld property rights over human rights - stating Dred Scott, a slave, could not become a free man just because he had traveled in "free soil"
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) 14th Amendment - segregation was okay if facilities were equal. Took place in Louisiana - required separate seating for white passengers and black passengers on public railroads
Muller v. Oregon (1908) US. Supreme Court upheld Oregon law that limited hours for women laundry works to ten hours a day
Schenck v. U.S. (1919) 1st Amendment - created a precedent that 1st Amendment rights were not absolute.
Korematsu v. U.S. (1944) 5th Amendment after Pearl Harbor. President Roosevelt ordered internment of Japanese Americans. Rejected by "pressing public necessity may sometimes justify the existence of restrictions which curtail the civil rights of a single racial group."
Brown v. Board of Education (1954) 14th Amendment - 10 year old Topeka girl not allowed to attend her school because she was an African American. Segregation was a violation of equal protection clause.
Mapp v. Ohio (1961) 4th and 14th Amendment - involved admission of evidence gained by illegal searches, found unconstitutional
Baker v. Carr (1962) 14th Amendment - one man, one vote - equal representation
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) 14th Amendment and 6th Amendment - Due process clause of the 14th Amendment applied to the 6th Amendment's guarantee of cousel for all poor persons faced with a felony charge
Miranda v. Arizona (1966) suspect needs to be informed of his rights before being questioned
Roe v. Wade (1973) legalized abortion (privacy rights)
Regents of U. of California v. Bakke (1978) 14th Amendment - Bakke admitted to school based on violation of racial discrimination even though he was white. School held slots for disadvantaged citizens and when Bakke denied admission he went to court.
Created by: Ms.Sala