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History 100

Exam #2

QuestionAnswer
John Locke Had a huge influence in the Enlightenment era - bot politics and science. "Two Treaties of Gov't" and "Essay Concerning Human Understanding"
Patriots diverse group of colonists who supported resistant (Revolution)against British control and backed independence.
Tories colonist who supports the British side during the American Revolution. Uphold the supremacy of social order.
Loyalist Diverse group of colonists who supported the British cause during the Revolution; they did not want any change.
Real Whigs writers what warned colonists the dangers of gov't involvement in their daily lives. Proposed to eliminate monarchs and vest political power directly in the people.
Proclamation of 1763 forbid colonists to move west of the Appalachians to buy land or make any agreements with Native Americans
George Grenville The Prime Minister of Great Britain who introduced the Stamp Act of 1765 as a way of raising revenue in British America
Sons of Liberty well-organized Patriot paramilitary political organization composed of elites. Were very influential with organizing and carrying our the Boston Tea Part. The "Spirit" of the Revolution.
Loyal Nine Boston artisan social club who organized a protest against the Stamp Act hoping to show that all ranks of people opposed the act
Boston Tea Party protest against taxation and 13 years of increasing British oppression by attacking merchant ships in Boston Harbor. Nearly $1 million in tea was lost.
Boston Massacre British soldiers killed 5 colonists. This was a key event that galvanized the colonial public to the Patriot cause.
Coercive Acts Also known as the Intolerable Acts, were a series of 4 laws following the Boston Tea Party, which was England's attempt to control and restore order in America.
What were the four coercive acts? The Boston Port Act The Massachusetts Gov't Act The Administration of Justice Act The Quartering Act
Enlightenment was an intellectual and philosophical movement which dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy"
Great Awakening Reaction against the Enlightenment, which challenged traditional modes of thought. This changed the way people experienced God. Ministers were no longer the "elite" but common men and women. Much more democratic
Seven Years War The French and Indian War began in 1754 and ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1763. This war provided Great Britain enormous territorial gains in North America.
Sam Houston played a crucial role in the founding of Texas
George Washington commander in chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War and served two terms as the first president of the United States
Patrick Henry Introduced 7 proposals against the Stamp Act. A symbol of American struggle for liberty. Five term governor of Virginia. "Give me liberty or give me death!" speech
Benjamin Franklin Albany Plan helped to lay the groundwork for the Articles of Confederation. One of the founding fathers
Genet Affair sent by France to be the ambassador of the United States, to equip privateers against the British, embroil the US in the war with the British. Attempted to bring change to American gov't, but he was recalled.
Stono Rebellion the largest slave uprising in the British mainland colonies led by native Africans from the Kongo. In response the Negro Act of 1740 was passed.
What was the Negro Act of 1740? restricted slave assembly, education, and movement. Enacted a 10-year moratorium against importing African slaves, and established penalties against slaveholders' harsh treatment of slaves.
George Whitfield English Anglican cleric who was one of the founders of Methodism and the evangelical movement. Ignited the Great Awakening.
John Jay first chief justice of the US Supreme Court. Drafted the state's first constitution. Helped broker the 1783 Treaty of Paris to end the Revolutionary War
Lexington and Concord kicked off the American Revolutionary War. Untrained American militia defeated 700 British troops
Battle of Breed's Hill best known location where most of the fighting of Battle of Bunker Hill actually took place. Under Coloner William Prescott colonists built a 6 foot dirt wall on top of this hill
Thomas Jefferson Author of the Declaration of Independence and the 3rd President of the US
John Hancock signer of the Declaration of Independence and governor of Massachusetts. Used his wealth and influence to aid the movement of American Independence.
Richard Henry Lee "verbal Declaration of Independence" Led early resistance in Virginia to British rule
Henry Knox Served as the US first Secretary of War. He was a Revolutionary war general,
Richard Montgomery lead a failed 1775 invasion of Canada
Ethan Allen He and Benedict Arnold were memorable in the Battle of Fort Ticonderoga. One of the founders of Vermont.
Thomas Paine "these are the times that try men's souls".
John Dickinson "Penman of Revolution" urged colonists to resists, but not support independence from England, his reasoning set him apart from most of his colleagues
Battle of Saratoga Convinced France to join war on the US side in Revolution. "Treaty of Friendship"
Battle of Fort Stanwix played a crucial role in the Saratoga campaign pf 1777.
Yorktown British were forced to surrender 2 days after patriot soldiers captured fort Yorktown in 1781
Henry Clinton best known for his service as a general during the Revolutionary War. a British army officer and politician.
Nathanael Greene major general of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War. Reputation as commanding General George Washington's most gifted and dependable officer. Successful command in the Southern theater of the war
Thomas Howe a Whig member who was considered the leading citizen of Pittsburgh of his day
George Cornwallis one of the leading British generals in the American Revolutionary War. His surrender in 1781 to a combined American and French force at the Siege of Yorktown ended significant hostilities in North America
Treaty of Ghent ending the War of 18112. All conquered territory was to be returned to US and Canada
Treaty of Paris negotiated btwn the US and Great Britain which ended the Revolutionary War and recognized American independence.
Abigail Adams closest advisor and wife to John Adams, who he frequently sought advice from regarding many gov't matters
Ellen Swallow Richards the first woman in American accepted to any school of science and technology. the first American woman to obtain a degree in chemistry.
Judith Sargent Murray advocate for women's rights. First American proponents of the idea of equality of the sexes. Paved the way for new thoughts and ideas proposed by other feminist writers of the century
Alexander Hamilton author of the Federalist papers, was the US first Secretary of Treasury
Ordinance of 1785 settlers could purchase title to farmland in undeveloped west.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787 helped organize the new territories and set up steps each territory needed to take in order to become a state. Outlawed slavery. O-M-I-W-I = Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Indiana.
Shays Rebellion American farmers against state and local enforcement of tax collections and judgments for debt
James Madison 4th President of the US. "Father of the Constitution"
Samuel Adams a leader of the movement that became the American Revolution. American Republicanism
Constitution delineates the national frame of gov't. 3 branches of gov't: legislative, executive, and judicial
Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776. The 13 colonies regarded themselves as the 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule
Federalist first American political party which controlled federal gov't until 1801, when it was overwhelmed by the Democratic-Republican oppostion led by Thomas Jefferson
Federalist Papers 85 letters written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay to newspapers in 1780s to urge ratification of the US Constitution.
John Marshall 4th and longest-serving Chief Justice of the US. Established the Supreme Court's role in federal gov't
Whiskey Rebellion This was a tax protest on the first tax imposed domestic product. The taxation was intended to generate revenue for the war debt incurred during the Revolutionary War
Charles Talleyrand he served every French regime expect the Revolutionary "Terror" He was known as a liar and a deceiver, who possessed no political principle to anyone. Engaged in secret negotiation with the public enemies of is country while in its service.
Aaron Burr 3rd Veep. Fatally shot his rival, Alexander Hamilton, in a duel
XYZ Affair a diplomatic incident between France and America in the late 18th century that led to an undeclared war at sea; Quasi-War. French diplomats Hottinguer (X), Bellamy (Y), and Hauteval (Z)
Napoleon Bonaparte rose to prominence during the French revolution. Change in the gov't in France
Maximilien Robespierre one of the principal architects of the Reign of Terror. Radical Jacobin leader
Alien and Sedition Acts Alien = allowed the president to imprison or deport any alien at anytime Naturalization = American citizenship form aliens from 5 to 14 years Sedition = banned publishing any malicious writings against the gov't
Judiciary Act of 1801 an attempt by John Adams to expand power of Federalist Judiciary by appointing new judges
Louisiana Purchase the US purchase of 828,000,000 sq miles of territory from France, doubling the size of the republic. Known as a the Louisiana Territory
Lewis and Clark Expedition the first American exploration by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore and map the newly acquired Louisiana Territory and establish and American presence.
War of 1812 fought between the US and Great Britain over British violations of US maritime rights. Ended with Treaty of Ghent
Monroe Doctrine policy opposing European colonialism in the Americans beginning in 1823. Any European attempts to colonize in N. or S. American would be deemed as acts of aggression
Missouri Compromise balance of power btwn slave-holding and free states. Drew an imaginary line across the former Louisiana Territory, establishing separation btwen free and slave regions.
Lucretia Mott leading voices of the abolitionist and feminist movements. Helped form the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society in 183 and one of the founders of the American womens' rights movement
Susan B. Anthony pioneer crusader for the woman suffrage movement. Helped pave the way for the 19th amendment, giving the women right to vote.
Mary Wollstonecraft best known for a Vindication of the rights of Woman, in which she argues that women are not naturally inferior to men. Men and women should be treated equally.
Created by: wofford3235