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Nutrition Disorder

USCSOM: Pathology: Disorders of Nutrition

What is primary malnutrition? inadequate food supply
What is secondary malnutrition? GI disease, chronic wasting disease, acute critical illness
What is PEM? protein energy malnutrition
What is Marasmus? severe reduction in calories; wasting of somatic protein stores; serum albumin normal; alert and hungry
What is Kwashiorkor? severe lack of protein; depeletion of visceral stores despite sufficient calorie intake; flag sign/flaky paint skin; hypoalbuminemia
What is Cachexia? seen with cancer and aids; extreme weight loss, fatigue, atrophy
What substances are postulated to cause cachexia? PIF - proteolysis-inducing factor, LMF - lipid mobilizing factor, pro-inflammatory cytokines
What are clinical findings in anorexia nervosa? amenorrhea; dec TH, Estrogen, bone density,
What is retinol? vitamin A
What is a common dietary source of Vit A? beta-carotene
What is the most common cause of blindness in the world? Vit A deficiency
What occular deficiencies result from Vit A deficiency? xerophthalmia (dry eye), destruction of cornea, blindness, impaired night vision
What is Keratomalacia? softening and ulceration of cornea
What are bitot spots? spots on the cornea associated with Vit A deficiency
What epithelium is effected by lack of vit A? bronchial, urinary tract, skin
What are some acute and chronic effects of Vit A toxicity? headache, diziness, blurred vision; weightloss, bone/joint pain, increased bone resorption
What is the role of Vit D? maintain plasma levels of calcium and phosphorus
What is the major source of Vit D? sunlight, 90% endogenously made
What is a lack of vitamin D in children? rickets; irregular bone growth, bowed legs, costochondral junctions irregular
What is Osteomalacia? Vit D deficiency in Adults; inadequate mineralization in osteod in normal bone remodeling
What is ascorbic acid? Vit C
What is the role of Vit C? redox rxns and hydroxylation of collagen
What is scurvy? Vit C deficiency; hemorrhagic wounds, bone abnormalities
What happens in infantile scurvy? osteoblasts fail to form osteoid; periosteum becomes loosened and bleeds
What are the organic components that mediate hunger? leptin and neuropeptide Y
What are the functions of leptin and neuropeptide Y on appetite? leptin decrease appetite; NPY increase appetite
What is adiponectin? stimulate fatty acid-ox; decrease fat mass
What is ghrelin? gut hormone that increases food intake
What is the primary role of Vit E? major antioxidant
What happens in Vit E deficiency? spinocerebellar degeneration; decreased RBC lifespan; loss of pain/reflexes, muscle weakness, ataxia
What is the role of Vit K? co-factor in hepatic carboxylation of procoagulants II, VII, IX, X
What happens in Vit K deficiency? hemorrhagic tendancy; occurs with fat malabsorption, antibiotic treatment
What are the water solubule vitamins? thiamine (b1), riboflavin (b2), niacin, Vit C, Folate
What is the role of Thiamine? ATP synthesis, nerve conductance
What are the three targets in thiamine deficiency? dry beriberi (peripheral neuropathy), wet beriberi (cardiovascular syndrome) dilation of vessels and heart, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (bleeding into mamillary bodies)
What is the role of riboflavin B2? redox rxns, mitochondria
What are the clinical manifestations of ariboflavinosis? cheilosis (fissure at angle of mouth), glossitis (atrophy of tongue), scaly dermatitis
What ist eh role of niacin? NAD and NADP, can be synthesized or consumed
What is niacin deficiency? What happens? Pellagra, Dermatitis, Diarrhea, Dimentia
What is the role of pyridoxine B6? transaminations, carboxylations, deaminations, lipid and protein metabolism
What is the role of folate? single carbon units in DNA synthesis, nucleic acid synthesis
What is folate deficiency? megaloblastic anemia, neural tube defects
What minerals are associated with deficiencies? iron, zinc, copper, selenium, iodine
What results from zinc deficiency? acrodermatits enteropathica (rash around eyes, nose, mouth, anus); growth retardation; decreased fertility
What is the fxn of selenium? protects against oxidative lipid membrane dmg
What is Keshan disease? selenium deficiency; cardiomyopathy
Created by: jlellerm