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NCEA Level 1 genetic

NCEA Level 1 genetics external

TermDefinition
Haploid Half a set of chromosomes from only one parent (23 for humans)
Diploid A full set of chromosomes, half from the mother and half from the father (46 total, 23 from each parent)
DNA Replication The copying of genetic information that occurs before a cell divides to ensure that there are enough chromosomes in each daughter cell
semi-conservative A strand of each double helix is a parent and the other is a daughter
Meiosis Cell division that produces sex cells (gametes)
Mitosis A type of cell division that creates daughter cells genetically identical to each other and the parent
Trait A characteristic that determines someone's appearance or personality
Gene A segment of DNA that codes for a particular trait
Allele A particular version of a gene
complementary base pairing The rule that determines which bases can connect; A-T, C-G
Homologous pairs Pairs of chromosomes, one from each parent, that contain the same genes in the same loci. The alleles can be different
Natural Selection The increased survival of a organism with a particular trait due to changes in the environment and selection pressures
Heterozygous A genotype with two different alleles e.g Nn
Homozygous A genotype with two of the same alleles e.g NN
Recessive An allele that can only be expressed in the phenotype if there is no dominant allele to mask it
Dominant An allele that is expressed in the phenotype and masks any recessive allele.
Genotype The two alleles (one from each parent) that determine the phenotype of an organism
Phenotype The way alleles are expressed/The trait expressed
Selection Pressures Pressures such as lack of food that cause natural selection
Variation The difference in traits within a population
Mutation A permanent change in the sequence of DNA due to addition, deletion or substitution. They can be harmful, beneficial or neutral.
Nucleuotide the sequence that makes up DNA; a sugar, phosphate and a base
Created by: AnnabelleFenn
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