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Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment, American Revolution

Geocentric Theory The earth is the center of the universe
Scientific Revolution Transformation in European thought in the 1500's and 1600's; called for scientific observation, experimentation, questioning traditional authority
Scientific method Identify problem, form hypothesis, experiment, record results, and analyze
Descartes He believed everything should be doubted until it could be proved by REASON
Bacon He believed the only true way to gain scientific knowledge was through experimentation (scientific method)
Ptolemy He taught that the earth was unmovable and in the center of the universe
Copernicus After years of careful observation, he concluded that the sun was in the center of the universe
Kepler He was the first to prove that planets orbit the sun in an oval pattern (elliptical)
Galileo Perfected the telescope; observed craters on the moon and sun spots
Newton Explained law of universal gravity, developed calculus, and wrote of the 3 laws of motion
Vesalius Published the first accurate book on the human anatomy
Harvey He described how blood and the circulatory system function
Leeuwenhoek Invented the microscope; first to see cells
Enlightenment Age of Reason
Hobbes Wrote "Leviathan"; believed people were evil and greedy; people need govt. to impose order
Locke People are born with natural rights of life, liberty and property; govt. should protect the people
Rousseau People are born good, but society corrupts them; govt. should work for benefit of common good, not just for the wealthy
Montesquieu He thought the best from of government includes separation of power
Voltaire He believed in justice and religious toleration; also freedom of speech
Diderot Compiled the "Encyclopedia", 28 volumes on art, science, government, and religion
Mary Wollstonecraft Believed women should have the same educational opportunities and rights as men
Articles of Confederation 1st constitution of US; made national govt. too weak; was replaced
US Constitution Oldest written constitution still in use today
Federal system When certain powers are held by federal govt. and other powers are reserved for the state govts.
Bill of Rights First 10 amendments; protected the natural rights advocated by Voltaire, Locke, and Rousseau
Created by: k.pharr



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