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Ch 9 WWI

US HIstory EOC Mastering the Teks Ch 9

Militarism European nations were arming themselves with the latest innovations in weapons produced by industry as they competed for territory
Nationalism the rise of nations encouraged patriotism and pride in a common language, history, culture, and rivalries based on military success
Alliance System Europeans formed alliances in which an attack on one nation would involve other nations
Imperialism & Economics European nations competed for colonies to extract raw resources and a market to sell their industrial products
Archduke Franz Ferdinand his assassination by Serbian nationalists seeking independence from Austria was the spark that led to WWI
poison gas mustard gas was a powerful weapon that forced soldiers to wear protective masks
machine guns powerful weapons that had rapid-fire capabilities to kill soldiers at a distance
submarines called U-boats, the Germans used to sink the Allied shipping to slow down supplies from the USA
airplanes early models were used for reconnaissance and dropping small grenades on enemy positions
Trench Warfare a stationary (not moving) battlefield with soldiers hiding in trenches separated by a 'no man's land" of barbed wire, mines, and constant shelling from artillery fire
Blockade attempt by each side's navy to prevent the other side from receiving supplies from their allies or overseas colonies by sinking cargo & passenger ships
Total War modern method of fighting in which combatants used all available resources and attacked military & civilian targets
Neutrality US tried to keep out of the conflict in Europe until 1917
conflicted ties with Europe many Americans traced their heritage to England based on common language and political system of democracy; the US had a large German immigrant population
War Propaganda American newspapers use inciteful images & stories depicting Germans as evil and vicious, and England & France as noble
Zimmerman Telegram secret message from Germany to Mexico offering the return of the Southwestern states in exchange for help against the USA
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Germany, desperate from the British blockade, declared intention of sinking every ship
Freedom of the Seas the USA demanded the right of nations like the US to ship non-military goods to nations at war
Lusitania British passenger ship sunk by German U-boats for secretly carrying weapons for Britain
Sussex Pledge German promise not to sink ocean liner ships without warning
American Expeditionary Force US troops sent to Europe to defeat Germany; African American units had to fight under French command due to segregation
John Pershing commander of US forces who had tried to capture Pancho Villa; insisted on training men before combat
Alvin York won the Congressional Medal of Honor for single-handedly killing and capturing scores of Germans
Selective Service Act in order to fill the demand for soldiers for the war effort, men were drafted into the military upon turning 18
Schenck vs. United States Socialist accused of distributing literature that encouraged others to ignore the military draft
Battle of Argonne forest greatest US battle that shattered German defenses and forced them to sue for peace and surrender
Women & African Americans in the economy women and African Americans took on jobs of white men who joined the war effort
Espionage Act civil liberties were cut back when Congress passed a law making it a crime to criticize the war effort
Treaty of Versailles ended WWI, but its harsh terms toward Germany led to the rise of Hitler and eventually WWII
Break-up of Empires allies of Germany-Austro-Hungary & Ottoman Empire's territories were broken apart to create new nations, but under the control of England & France (mandate system)
War Raparations Germany was forced to pay England & France millions for the cost of the war; money it could not pay back
War Guilt Germany was forced to admit sole responsibility for starting the war
League of Nations Woodrow Wilson's idea of collective security to prevent future wars, that the US Senate rejected due to Constitutional issue of declaring war
Henry Cabot Lodge anti-imperialist who led the Senate's opposition to the Treaty of Versailles and against joining the League of Nations
Fourteen Points Woodrow Wilson's plan for a post-war Europe , that called for freedom of the seas, free trade, the League of Nations, and the right of self-determination by colonies of Euorope
Created by: wm0397