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Chapter 9

TermDefinition
bedouins nomadic Arab peoples who lived in bands in the Arabian Peninsula's desert
Muhammad founder of Islam
hegira Muhammad's journey from Mecca to Medina
Islam religion founded by Muhammad; literally "to surrender"
Muslims followers of Islam
Qu'ran sacred text of Islam, considered Allah's direct revelation
Five Pillars of Islam obligations required of all Muslims
mosque name for the building where Muslims worship
jihad word can be translated as "struggle for the faith" or "holy war" and can also mean the struggle to defend the Muslim community or convert people to Islam
Abu Bakr successor to Muhammad leader of Islam
caliphs title given to leaders of Islam after Muhammad, means "successors"
caliphate area ruled by a caliph
Umayyad a powerful clan from Mecca whose struggle to regain control lead to civil war
Sunnis Muslims who accepted the Umayyad caliph
Shia supporters of Muhammad's cousin Ali, who refused to accept the Umayyad caliph
Sufis a group within Islam that seeks a mystical, personal connection with God
Abbasid family that ruled Islam after the Umayyads lost control
Harun al-Rashid most prominent Abbasid caliph, helped Muslim culture reach greatness
Created by: tinsleylett