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Progressive Era

The Progressive Era A period of time in which government officials and citizens (especially the middle class) called for reforms in business, politics, and society as a whole. Progressives aimed to fix the problems caused by the Gilded Age.
Child-labor Laws Laws to prevent or limit child labor
Workers' Compensation Money paid to workers if injured on the job, or to workers' families if killed on the job, without having to prove negligence by owners
Poison Squad Group of subjects, overseen by Dr. Harvey Wiley, who ingested foods and drugs to determine the effects of additives
Millionaire's Club Slang term implying that rich people controlled the Senate
Progressive Income Tax When people with higher incomes are taxed at a higher percentage
Zoning When local governments control how land is to be used; for example, preventing residential land to be used for commercial purposes
Sterilization Medical procedure to prevent someone from having children
Suffrage the right to vote
William Jennings Bryan United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver, supported by populists, and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school
Third Parties Examples: Populists, Bull Moose. Influence: major parties will usually adopted third party ideas if they draw significant support (ex: direct election of senators)
Progressive Movement an early 20th century reform movement seeking to return control of the government to the people, to restore economic opportunities, and to correct injustices in American life
Social Gospel Movement a 19th century religious movement based on the belief that Christians have a responsibility to help improve working conditions and alleviate poverty.
Muckrakers Writers of the Progressive Era who exposed abuses and corruption in society, government, and industry
Upton Sinclair This muckraker wrote "The Jungle," which exposed the truth about the US meat packing industry. Significance: This horrified the nation and led to the creation of the Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act
Jane Addams Established Hull House for immigrants, where they could learn English, discuss political events, & hold celebrations. Opened daycare so children weren't left home alone. Advocated against many social injustices, especially child labor & women's suffrage.
W.E.B. DuBois Activist who encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation & discrimination. Helped create NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) a civil rights organization that devotes itself to progress of African American Community.
17th Amendment This amendment allows the voters in each state to elect their US senators directly
Theodore ("Teddy") Roosevelt 26th U.S. President. Expanded powers of the presidency & of the federal government in support of the public interest in conflicts between big business & labor and steered the nation toward an active role in world politics, particularly in Europe & Asia.
Square Deal This program, created by President Roosevelt, focused on Progressive reforms designed to protect the common people. This reforms included Trust Busting, Railroad Regulation, Public Health, Conservation, and Business Regulation
William H. Taft Elected President in 1908; supported safety standards for mines and railroads; supported 16th amendment; disappointed progressives in the areas of tariffs and conservation.
Woodrow Wilson 28th president of the United States, known for “New Freedom” plan; involved financial reform, increased government regulation of business. Also known for World War I leadership
Susan B. Anthony Arrested for voting in 1872. She became a leading figure in the women's suffrage movement
19th Amendment This amendment gave women the right to vote
Ida Tarbell This muckraker exposed the abuses of John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Trust in her book "The History of the Standard Oil Company"
Jacob Riis Muckraker who took pictures of tenements & overcrowded cities to expose the poor living & working conditions of immigrants. Published these pictures in book, "How the Other Half Lives". Significance: His book would lead to reform all throughout the city
Booker T. Washington an African- American intellectual, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society; He was also the founder of the Tuskegee Institute
Referendum The process that allows citizens to approve or reject a law passed by a legislature
Recall The process by which voters can remove elected officials from office before their term ends. Significance: This decreased corruption within local governments
Initiative The process in which citizens put a proposed new law directly on the ballot by collecting citizen's signatures on a petition
16th Amendment This allows the federal government to collect income tax
18th Amendment This prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
The Pure Food and Drug Act This law, passed in response to Sinclair's "The Jungle", was enacted to halt the sale of contaminated foods and drugs. It also ensured truth in labeling.
The Meat Inspection Act established strict cleanliness requirements for meat-packers and created a federal meat-inspection program.
Settlement House built as a place where immigrants came to live. Instruction was given in English and how to get a job. Hull House was the first settlement house founded by Jane Addams in Chicago in 1889.
Secret Ballot Allowed voters to cast a vote without election officials knowing who they voted for.
Direct Primary Voters, rather than politicians, would choose candidates for public office.
Spoils System/Patronage Government jobs given to supporters as reward for contribution to politicians.
Pendleton Civil Service Act created a Civil Service Commission that gave exams and selected government employees based on merit
Tuskegee Institute An Institution that served to train African Americans in varying trades to help them escape oppression and achieve economic freedom
Populist Party party to represent the common folk (especially farmers). Wanted unlimited coinage of silver to raise farm prices, single term limit for presidents, direct elections of senators, secret ballots, and shorter work days.
Ida B. Wells co-founded NAACP, leading voice in social reform for African-Americans, spoke out against lynching
The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire This fire broke out in a NYC factory and employees were trapped inside due to a lack of safety precautions. The fire killed over 200 people on the top floors. Significance: This event increased the demand for safer working conditions throughout the city
De Facto Segregation Segregation based on the law. Example: Jim Crow Laws
De Jure Segregation Segregation that is not officially written into the law, but has evolved due to social or economic factors
Clayton Antitrust Act 1914 law that made certain monopolistic business practices illegal and protected the rights of labor unions and farm organizations. Strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act
Plessy vs. Ferguson This Supreme Court case ruled that de jure segregation was lawful as long as the facilities and services were "separate but equal"
"Jim Crow" Laws Laws enacted by southern state and local governments to separate white and black people in public and private facilities.
Eugenics the science of improving a human population by controlled breeding to increase the occurrence of desirable heritable characteristics.
Created by: mselliot