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Edexcel Politics 1.1

Edexcel A Level Politics UK Politics Component 1.1 Democracy and Participation

Define democracy. Rule by the people.
Define direct democracy. Where individuals express their opinions themselves.
Define representative democracy. Where individuals elect a representative on behalf of many people who take decisions for them.
Give positives of direct democracy. (2) Everyone gets a say and people are more likely to get involved.
Give negatives of direct democracy. (4) It's impractical, people are misinformed and inexperienced, it divides society and minorities will always be ignored.
Give positives of representative democracy. (3) The people are dedicated, it's practical, and it can be different based on differences between areas.
Give negatives of representative democracy. (2) Your representative may not represent all your views and a large amount of trust is needed.
How do direct and representative democracy come together in modern society? Referendums.
What are the positives of the UK democratic system? (5) Devolved governments, independent judiciary, free and fair elections, free media, and a wide range of parties.
What are the negatives of the UK democratic system? (4) Under representation of minority views, lack of legitimacy of the House of Lords, lack of rights protection (Gvmt can suspend articles of the 1998 Human Rights Act) and control of the influence from the media by the elite.
What was the average voter turnout from 1945-1997? 76%
When was the lowest voter turnout and what percentage was it? 2001 - 59.4%
What was voter turnout in the 2015 general election? 65%
Give the negative of postal voting. (1) Subject to fraud.
Give the negatives of e-voting. (2) Subject to hacking and not so accessible to the elderly/poor.
Give the positives of compulsory voting. (4) Gets people involved, more representative, better campaigns would be needed and spoiled ballots are still an option.
Give the negatives of compulsory voting. (4) May lead to voters guessing, undemocratic to force people to vote, wouldn't stop the neglect of 'safe' seats, doesn't take deeper reasons to not vote into account.
Give the statistics for the SNP and UKIP votes-to-seats ratio. SNP: 4.6% votes 8.6% seats UKIP: 12.6% votes 0.2% seats
Why might people say we do have a participation crisis? (3) The percentage of the electorate who belong to a political party has decreased from 3.8% in 1980 to 1.6%, voter turnout is down from a 76% average to 69%, and e-media reduces the amount of actual action people take.
Why might people say we don't have a participation crisis? (3) People are more involved with pressure groups, e-media allows for more convenient methods of participation, and there was an 84% turnout in the Scottish Independence Referendum.
Give the (5) reasons for allowing 16 year olds to vote. Citizenship can educate the children, they have many liberties at 16 including joining the military and paying taxes, 3/4 of 16-18 year olds voted in the Scottish Referendum, it encourages voting from a young age and the issues affect young people too.
Give the (5) reasons against allowing 16 year olds to vote. They lack basic life experience that informs votes, they may be influenced by parents, liberties are often limited eg. with parental permission, the Scottish referendum had high turnouts from everyone so isn't reliable, and most countries don't allow it.
What are the conditions for exclusion in UK voting? (7) Under 18s, EU citizens (they can vote in local elections), Lords, prisoners, those who have been sectioned, those convicted of electoral fraud in the past 5 years, and those who have lived abroad for 15+ years.
When was the NUWWS formed? 1897
When was the WSPU formed? 1903
When was the Representation of the People Act passed and what did it do? 1918; it opened up the vote to 30+ year old women who owned property/were married to someone who did the right to vote.
When could both sexes vote at 21? 1928
List the 'shallow' reforms to voting methods. (5) Changing the day, voting at any polling station, e-voting, voting over several days, and postal voting.
List the 'shallow' reforms to the electorate. (2) Change in age limit, compulsory voting.
List 'deep' reforms to the political system. (3) Proportional representation, parliamentary reform, devolving powers.
List the (3) types of pressure groups with regards to membership. Sectional groups / interest groups; cause groups / promotional groups; social movements.
What does a sectional group do? Pushes for the interests of an occupation or group.
What does a cause group do? Draws attention to issues and/or achieve goals. Generally humanitarian, and usually members aren't directly affected.
What does a social movement do? Similarly to a cause group they pursue a certain issue, but are generally more loosely structured and politically radical.
What's the difference between an insider group and an outsider group? Insider groups are consulted by the government because they value expertise, such as the National Union of Farmers. Insider groups tend to have views that align with the government's, or at least are not radically opposed.
Why are lobbyists controversial? It is seen that wealth = power because the most efficient lobbyists demand the most money for their time.
How many people are lobbyists and how much is spent on it? 4000 people with £2 billion spent per year; £500,000 each on average.
What is the 'revolving door process'? The process of MPs taking well paid private sector jobs after they leave government in return for insight and experience that benefits the large corporation. Some big business leaders also become ministers by being appointed in the House of Lords.
What (6) factors influence the success of a pressure group? Wealth, membership, tactics and leadership, public support, government attitudes and allegiance and capacity to disrupt society (perhaps most important).
When was the Human Rights Act passed and what did it incorporate into law? 1998 (effective 2000); incorporated the European Convention om Human Rights into Law.
When was the Equality Act passed and what did it do? Protected 9 characteristics including sexuality, gender, religion and marriage status from discrimination.
Summarise the case study of Max Mosley. Max Mosely was wealthy and used Article 8 (right to privacy) and Article 10 (freedom of expression) to be awarded substantial damage. It showed that those with wealth had judicial advantage as they could afford legal action in court.
Summarise the case study of Abu Qatada. Abu Qatada was a terrorism suspect who would not be deported to Jordan in 2005 due to risk of being tortured which went against the Human Rights Act. His deportation was held off for 8 years until 2013.
Judicial review rose from ____ in 2000 to ____ in 2013. Judicial review rose from 4240 in 2000 to 15600 in 2013.
Why is increased judicial review positive? It's a vital means of protecting civilian rights, especially against corrupt governments.
Why is increased judicial review negative? It places too much power in the hands of unelected judges.
Created by: lottieball17
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