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SOC UNIT 2 2020

Mr. Stickler's Liberty Christian SOC Unit 2 "Resrch Mthds" Test Flashcards 2020

QuestionAnswer
List two (2) of the strengths of Survey Research. 1.) Useful for describing features of large populations without interviewing everyone; 2.) It is fairly easy to get large samples from the population you are studying.
List two (2) weaknesses of Survey Research. 1.) Respondents may not be truthful when answering emotionally charged question; 2.) Possibility exists for potentially forced answers.
What does the term "respondents" mean/ refer to? This term refers to people who provide data for analysis through interviews and questionnaires.
What are "questionnaires"? These are "printed research instruments that contain a series of items to which subjects respond".
What are "surveys"? These are "polls in which the researcher gathers facts or attempts to determine the relationships among facts".
What are "interviews"? These are "data collection encounters in which an interviewer asks the respondent questions and records the answers".
What is the difference between "structured" and "unstructured" interviews? In structured interviews, the researcher uses a set of pre-written questions. In unstructured interviews, the researcher simply asks the respondent questions as they come to their mind.
What is the difference between using an "inductive" research approach versus a "deductive" approach? "Inductive" research begins when the researcher examines data and then comes up with their research question. "Deductive" research begins with a theory or hypothesis and leads to the collection of data.
What does the term "quantitative research" mean? This term means that the focus of sociological research is on collecting data that can be measured numerically.
What does the term "qualitative research" mean? This term relates to research that results in interpretive descriptions (i.e. words) instead of numerical data. These descriptions are used to analyze underlying meanings & patterns in social relationships.
What is the difference between using "normative approach" to sociological research versus an "empirical approach"? The "normative approach" uses religions, customs, habits, & traditions to answer important questions. The "empirical approach" "attempts to answer questions through the systematic collection & analysis of data.
What are "independent variables" in experimental research? These are presumed to cause or determine a dependent variable. Example: Age, sex, ethnicity, and race are often used as "independent variables".
What are "dependent variables" in experimental research? These are assumed to depend on or be caused by the independent variable(s). Example: Changes in behavior after playing Call of Duty.
What is "random sampling"? This describes the situation in which every member of an entire population being studied has the same chance of being selected.
What is "probability sampling"? This describes the situation in which participants (in a research study) are deliberately chosen because they have specific characteristics (ex: age, sex, race/ethnicity, & educational attainment).
What does the term "secondary analysis" describe/ refer to? This describes a research study in which the researcher analyzes existing data that was originally collected by a different scientist for their study. Example: A researcher may analyze Census data to answer their research question(s).
What does the term "content analysis" describe/ refer to? This describes a research study in which the researcher conducts a systematic examination of cultural artifacts or various forms of communication to "draw conclusions about social life".
How is "field research" conducted? This type of research is done by observing social life in its natural setting. People are observed where they live, work, and play.
How is "participant observation" research conducted? This type of research is done by "collecting systematic observations while being a part of the activities of the group that the researcher is studying". Example: A researcher may live among a tribe of people while studying them.
What are "ethnographies"? These are "detailed studies of the life and activities of a group of people by researchers who may live with that group over a period of years".
What are "case studies"? These are "in - depth, multifaceted investigations of a single event, person, or social grouping".
What is the purpose of computing the "correlation coefficient"? The purpose of this is to determine whether or not there is a linear relationship between two (2) variables in a study as well as the strength of the relationship. It also lets us know whether that relationship is positive or negative.
List two (2) strengths of "field research". 1.) Researchers get the chance to gain an "insider's view" of the population they are studying; 2.) It allows for documentation of important social problems where excluded social groups are concerned.
List two (2) weaknesses of "field research". 1.) Subjects may change their behavior because they know they are being studied (called "reactivity"); 2.) Researchers are not able to demonstrate cause/ effect relationships among the test variables.
List two (2) strengths of "experimental research". 1.) Researchers have a high degree of control over the experimental setting; 2.) Researchers have the ability to isolate experimental factors.
List two (2) weaknesses of "experimental research". 1.) The experimental setting is artificial by nature; 2.) There can be ethical questions regarding deceiving research participants.
What is an Institutional Review Board (IRB)? The is a group made up of academics, medical doctors (at least one), lawyers, and senior researchers who are responsible for reviewing and approving or denying research studies before they are conducted.
What is the purpose of an Institutional Review Board (IRB)? This group's purpose is to ensure that participants in potential research studies will not be harmed in any way and that no laws or ethical codes will be broken if the study is conducted as it is written.
What are "extraneous" variables (where experimental research is concerned)? These are variables that unintentionally interfere with a researcher's results. For example: Something else may be responsible for behavior changes seen in the "Call of Duty study" we talked about in class.
What is the difference between the "experimental group" and the "control group" where experimental research is concerned? "Experimental groups" are groups in which the participants are exposed to the independent variable to study its effect on them. The "control group" members are not exposed to the independent variable.
Which two (2) types of data measurement are "qualitative"? 1.) Nominal; 2.) Ordinal
Which two (2) types of data measurement are "quantitative"? 2.) Interval; 3.) Ratio
What is "nominal" data? This type of data "names" things (EX: hair color = Black, Dark Brown, Brown, etc.).
What is "ordinal" data? This type of data puts things in a particular "order" (EX: 1 = Very Unhappy, 2 = Unhappy, 3 = O.K., etc.)
What is "interval" data? This type of data tells us the "order" of the information it represents and the exact distance between each number (EX: degrees on a thermometer are "interval" data).
What is "ratio" data? This type of data tells us about the order or the information it represents, the exact value/ distance between each #, and has an absolute zero. (EX: Distance or area in acres - 0 acres and 0 feet are the same thing).
Which of the four (4) types of data measurement that we learned about allow the use of "measures of central tendency"? Ordinal, Interval, & Ratio data measurements allow for this.
Which of the four (4) types of data measurement that we learned about allow the use of "correlation coefficients" (like Pearson's r that we learned in class)? Ratio data measurements allow for this.
Which of the four (4) types of data measurement that we learned about that allow the use of Standard Deviation? Interval data measurements allow for this.
What does the correlation coefficient tell us? This statistic tells us whether or not there is a linear relationship between numbers in a data set, the strength of the relationship (if there is one), and whether or not it is a positive or negative relationship.
Complete the following sentence: "When computing the correlation coefficient, the answer should be between _____________ and ________________." 1 and -1
What are three (3) things that you should ask yourself when analyzing a research study? 1.) Was the study done by a reputable professional? 2.) Are the results that were reported too vague to support the researcher's stated results? 3.) Do they use words like "always", "everyone", or "never"?
What are the steps of the scientific method (in a quantitative research model)? 1.) Select & define the research problem; 2.) Review previous research; 3.) Formulate a hypothesis; 4.) Develop a research design; 5.) Collect and analyze the data.
What is a Likert Scale? This is a type of rating scale used to measure attitudes or opinions. With this scale, respondents are asked to rate items on a level of agreement.
What is an example of a Likert Scale? An example of this would be a question that asks respondents to choose from the following: "Agree Completely", "Moderately Agree", "Neutral", "Moderately Disagree", or "Disagree Completely"
Created by: sticklerpjpII
 

 



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