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Chapter 6

republic a type of government in which elected officials govern the state
patricians elected officials from aristocratic families in the Roman Republic
plebeians nonaristocrats in the Roman Republic
veto rejection of harmful or unjust laws
Forum central square in Rome
constitution Roman political structure that created new offices and government institutions
Senate a body of legislators who acted as advisers, controlled public finances, and handled foreign relations in the Roman Republic
consuls elected magistrate that replaced the king as chief executives of the state
dictator a ruler who had nearly unlimited power
Gracchi Two brothers, Tiberius Gracchus and Gaius, who tried to redistribute land to small farmers
Gaius Marius a talented general who, as consul, allowed anyone to join the army
Lucius Cornelius Sulla a general who became consul in 88 BC and later dictator
Julius Caesar helped end the Republic and became dictator of Rome in 44 BC
triumvirate the rule of three men
Augustus a title of honor given to Octavia in 27 BC, meaning "the revered one"
Pax Romana the Roman Peace, which lasted from 27 BC to AD 180
villa a Roman country home that had conveniences such as running water and baths
circus racetrack used for chariot racing
paterfamilias the family father, the oldest living male in a family
augurs priests who specialized in interpreting signs from the gods in natural phenomena
Galen physician whose medical writings established him as the greatest medical authority for centuries
Ptolemy astronomer who said that the earth was the center of the universe
aqueducts manmade channels used to bring water to cities
Latin the language and the root of French, Italian, Spanish, Romanian, and Portuguese languages
civil law system of law based on written codes
Christianity a religion based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth
Messiah a spiritual leaser who, according to prophecy, would restore the ancient Kingdom of David
Jesus of Nazareth a spiritual leader who taught people to seek forgiveness for their sins
disciples followers
Apostles twelve disciples chosen by Jesus
martyrs people who suffer death for the sake of their faith, inspiring others to believe
Paul Jewish apostle who helped spread Christianity in the eastern Mediterranean region, formerly called Saul
Eucharist a religious ceremony that commemorated Jesus's last supper
bishop a priestly official who oversaw church affairs in a particular city, had authority over other priests in Rome
pope bishop of Rome
inflation a dramatic rise in prices
Diocletian a capable Roman emperor who assumed the throne in 248 and created an absolute monarchy to strengthen the empire
Attila the leader of the Huns
Created by: tinsleylett