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Pre-AP US Ch. 6

American Society in Transition: West & Urban

TermDefinition
urbanization the movement of populations from the countryside (rural) to the cities & towns (urban)
demography the study of population distribution in a region
McCormick Reaper machinery that cut & bundled grain faster, which reduced the number of farm jobs needed
municipal /municipality city-based / city
tenements crowded single-room apartments without heating or lighting where many immigrant families were packed
political machines organizations like Tammany Hall helped immigrants settle in cities with jobs & housing, but stole govt. money from contracts and bribery
Boss Tweed head of the NYC political machine who used support from Irish immigrants to bribe lawmakers to pass laws favorable to his self interest
push factors poverty, war, religious persecution
pull factors jobs, land, political/religious freedom
New Immigrants unskilled workers from southern & eastern Europe of Catholic, Orthodox, & Jewish backgrounds who faced discrimination from nativist groups in the US
Ellis Island the immigration processing center on the East Coast where the Statue of Liberty is
Ethnic Ghettos urban neighborhoods where new immigrants settled with those from the same background. They felt comforted by being able to speak the same language & follow same customs: Little Italy, Chinatown
Americanized immigrant children learned to dress, speak, and act like other Americans faster than their parents who worked.
assimilated public schools helped re-shape immigrants to be part of the "melting pot" of America by adopting American customs
nativists/nativism opponents of immigration on the grounds that the New Immigrants were inferior to Anglo-Saxon Protestants and that they took jobs and lowered wages for native-born workers
Chinese Exclusion Act Law passed in 1882 was the first to restrict immigration based on anti-Asian prejudices in California by whites who saw them as an economic threat
frontier the line separating the technologically advanced American settlements from Native people's lands; by 1890 the frontier was closed with the help of the Transcontinental RR and the Reservation System
Sitting Bull/Crazy Horse Native leaders who defeated Gen. Custer's cavalry, but eventually were captured or killed and forced onto reservations
Homestead Act land grants by the federal govt. intended to encourage settlement of the West by immigrants, that gave 160 acres to a family if they farmed for 5 years in the Great Plains region
vaquero spanish/mexican cattle ranch hands who taught American cowboys (Anglo & Af. Americans) how to ride, rope, and brand cattle
open range open, unfenced land where cowboys could drive cattle to graze on their way to the rail lines in Kansas
reservation wastelands where Native groups were forced to live as farmers by the federal govt. to clear the plains for the Transcontinental RR & farmers
Dawes Act attempt to assimilate Natives by breaking up tribal lands into individual parcels of private property and citizenship. Whites bought up 2/3 of communal land, nearly destroying Native society
American Citizenship Act-1924 as a reward for military service in WWI, this law granted citizenship to all Natives born in the US
barbed wire steel wire with sharp edges invented and used by farmers to fence off and mark their land to keep cattle & sheep grazers off their property; ended the open range
Created by: wm0397