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chp3

the cytoplasm

TermDefinition
cytoplasm the cellular material between the plasma membrane and the nucleus, the site of most cellular activities.
cytosol is the viscous, semitransparent fluid in which the other cytoplasmic elements are suspended.
organelles small cellular structures that perform specific metabolic functions for the whole cell.
mitochondria cytoplasmic organelles responsible for ATP generation
ribosomes where proteins are synthesized.
endoplasmic reticulum(ER) membranous network; tubular or saclike channels
cisterns cavity or enclosed space serving as a reservoir
golgi apparatus membranous sac packages protein secretions for export, packages enzymes into lysosomes for cellular use, and modifies proteins destined to become part of cellular membranes
rough ER has ribosomes
peroxisomes membranous sacs in cytoplasm contaning powerful oxidase enzymes that use molecular oxygen to detoxify harmful substances
secretory vesicles (granules) vesicle that migrate to the plasma membrane of a cell discharging their contents from the cell by exocytosis
lysosomes organelles that originate from the Golgi apparatus and contain strong digestive enzymes
free radicals highly radioactive chemicals with unpaired electrons that can scramble the structure of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
autolysis when a lysosome, digest itself.
cystoskeleton an elaborate series of rods running through the cytosol, supporting cellular structures and providing the machinery to generate various cell movements
microfilaments thin strands of the contractile protein actin
microtubules one of three type of rods in the cytoskeleton of a cell; hollow tubes make of spherical protein that determine cell shape as well as the distribution of cellular organelles
centrosome (cell center) a region near the nucleus that contains paired organelle call centrioles
centrioles minute body found in pairs near the nucleus of the ell; active in cell division
cilia (eyelashes), tiny hair like projections that move in a wavelike manner to propel subs across the exposed cell surface
basal bodies an organelle structurally identical to a centriole and forming the base of a cilium or flagellum
flagella projection formed by centriole, longer and propels itself.
microvilli are minute, fingerlike extensions of plasma membrane that project from and exposed cell surface.
nucleus cell control center and gene-container.
multinucleate having more than one nucleus.
anucleate no nucleus a=without
chromatin structures in the nucleus that carry the hereditary factors 9genes)
chromosomes Barlike bodies of tightly coiled chramatin; visible during cell division
nucleoli (little nuclei)dark staining spherical bodies where ribosomal subunits are assembled. found within nucleus.
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid a nucleic acid found in all living cells , carries hereditary information. contains deoxyribose sugar and agtc
nucleosomes fundamental unit of chromatin; consists of a strand of DNA wound around a cluster of eigth histone proteins
Interphase one of two major periods in the cell life cycle; includes the period from cell formation to cell division
cell cycle series of changes a cell goes through from the time it is formed until it reproduces itself.
Created by: chasi