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Lap 1 History

Test

QuestionAnswer
people who study the past historians
things left behind by people which are studied what life was like in the past historical evidence
the earth is _ years old 4 billion
people started keeping records when? 3000 BCE
things left behind in the past that ere studied? artifacts, documents/writings
written works documents
old stone age paleolithic
tools were made out of stone, bone, wood; NEVER METAL stone age
farming is introduced Neolithic
stone, bone, wood paleolithic
first evidence of what during paleolithic era? religious belief, cave paintings, small statues, careful burial
we all started where then migrated? Africa
How did Paleolithic people live and survive the Ice AGe? 1. they were nomads 2. hunter gatherers 3. Tools & Weapons 4. Fire 5. Clothing & Shelter
moved with the food source nomads
different jobs; killed animals hunter gatherers
What did fire do during the Ice Age? it helped control heat necessary to survive the ice age
When does the neolithic age end? when metal is introduced
What is the Significance of farming? 1. Domesticate ( selective breeding) 2. Settlement (eventually grow into cities; no need to move) 3. Stable food supply 4. Population Growth 5. New Tech developed for new way of life 6. Food Surplus 7. Division labor -> inequality 8. Civilization
stable food supply population growth New Tech developed for new way of life Food surplus leads to divison of labor DOL -> Inequality plant based foods, meat, milk able to feed more people everyone's job is to farm women were not able to do same things as men
a new stage of human development civilizations
center of all civilizations cities
typically tied in with religion government
to explain the roles of society and to explain natural phenomenon; certain agreements on what the religion complex religion
jobs division of labor
ranked on importance hierarchy; social structure
connected to religion and government art & architecture
things that don't belong anyone individual but important for the society to function public works
example of public works? roads, defense works
first civilization depends on what? river valleys; fertile crescent, Egypt, India, China
water and fertile land allows them? to farm
one culture borrowing attractive elements from another culture culture diffusion
Two parts of the fertile crescent? Mesopotamia
countries located in FC? kuwait, syria, iran, iraq
Tigris and Euphrates did? flood unpredictable no ability to farm fertile soil
flat open plains left no barriers against attack
made to build homes, and ziggurat, art and architecture clay
first civilization sumerian
cities were Ur, Uruk sumerian
surrounded by a wall; constantly under attack sumerian
early temple made of clay bricks that indicate religion lasted forever ciggurat
traded w/egypt and india sumerian
invented the wheel; wheeled vehicles, used math, astronomy sumerian
government where the high priest was also the king and lead military sumerian
polytheism; gods were angry bc of geography sumerian
based on their job Sumerian hierarchy (King/Priest/Warrior)
sumerian handwriting; latin for wedge shaped cuneiform
written in 3 different languages cuneiform, persian
told the tale of king sumer looking for immortality, inscribed on 12 tablets epic of gilgamesh
created math based on the number six, built sewers, geometry, bronze, ziggurat Sumerian legacy
conquered sumerians akkadians
Sargon I akkadians
develops city-states akkadians
groups of different peoples under one goverment empire
leader of the empire emperor
one very powerful government being subjugated imperial
adopted much of sumerian culture akkadians
made codified legal system given to by King Hammurabi babylonians
first written down legal code babylonians
generally known what is illegal and the punishment common law
conquered Mesopotamia in 1790 BCE; adopted sumerian culture Babylonians
oldest known legal system code of hammurabi
codify civil law and criminal law code of hammurabi
between person and government criminal law
between neighbor and government civil law
unfair favors to higher class over lower class; patriarchal Code of Hammurabi
adopted much of Sumerian culture; introduced iron Hitties
made iron ploy to help in farming Hitties
introduced chariot and modified: 3 men and one to drive and two fighters Hitties
rules the fertile crescent until conquered by sea people Hitties
conquered the fertile crescent; adopting sumerian culture assyrians
military is different; through terror and psychological warfare; rule under threat of fear Assyrians
capital city Nineveh Assyrians
Absolute rulers Assyrians
Contributed to the library at Nineveh Assyrians
Overthrown by the Chaldeans Assyrians
King Nebuchadnezzar Chaldeans
rebuilt Babylon as capital Chaldeans
2nd or New Babylonian Empire Chaldeans
Babylonian Captivity of the Jews Chaldeans/King Nebuchadnezzar
contributed the Ishtar gate, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon Chaldeans
Cyrus the Great; known for compassion, beloved by the people, frees the Jews Persians
takes over after Cyrus conquered and unified empire; wrote the Behistun rock; instead of trading goods introduced coins, built 1500 miles of roads Darius I
type of government where people in charge of public works make sure government runs smoothly bureaucracy
satrapy headed by governor satrap
separates Persia into provinces satrapy
Persians contributed Zoroastrianism
weights and measures so everyone gets fair way when trading law code
Persian thinker develops a religion that unites the Persian Empire Zoroaster
dualist;monotheistic Zoroastrianism
two forces are constantly battling for power over the earth dualism
the God; positive, power creator Ahura Mazda
the EVIL guy; bad, prince of wise & evil Ahriman
ZEN. the sacred writing/ text teaches you have free will to choose between good or evil; reward of paradise to those who follow good; evil ends in eternal suffering Avesta
Why is it not similar to Judaism and Christianity? not same concept of afterlife but are both monotheistic and dualist
never an empire; empire of trade phoenicians
created trading colonies: North Africa, Spain, Europe, Italy phoenicians
known for seamanship phoenicians
"carriers of civilization" phoenicians
invented purple dye named tyrian purple phoenicians
replaced cuneiform with the alphabet; invented glass blowing phoenicians
No Nile No Egypt
Black silt made it possible to farm
red land desert
floods predictable nile river
similar to tigris and Euphrates? make civilization and farming possible
dis-similarities to TE and Nile? flooding is predictable and stable
Nile is 2 distinct regions Upper Egypt - South Lower Egypt - North
starts the first Egyptian dynasty King Memes
capital of unified Egypt Memphis
divided Egypt 3 kingdoms during unification Old, Middle, New
ruling families dynasty
title of the king, also divine, pharaoh
Whats the Pharaoh job? has absolute power, makes the sun rise, crops grow, nile river flood, keep Ma'at (cosmic order) in check
government ruled by religious figures theocracy
organized government through officials bureaucracy
steward of the land; pharaoh right hand man vizier
Age of the pyramids Old Kingdom
Why dd they stop building pyramids? Bc grave robbers would steal
Khurfu, Khafre, Menkaure, largest public works built by farmers during the flood season Pyramid of Giza
made as a protector to protect the tombs Sphinx
What was the sphinx made out of? limestone
Middle Kingdom changed the capital to? Thebes
expand boundaries to Nubia Middle Kingdom
Ends with an invasion of the Hyksos MK
people from Syria Hyksos
ruled for 100 yrs. teach Egyptians about war and military, how to create armor and weapons Hyksos
age of empire NK
built a powerful military and permanent army NK
time of wealth; increased trade, new building projects NK
Egyptian empire lost by? Sea People
Do not gain independence till? 1990s
Sign peace treaty w Hitties NK
most important part of civilization religion
remain unchangeable for thousands of yrs religion
Egyptian religion is polytheistic
wife of Osiris, mother of the universe Isis
has the head of the Hawk, son Horus
Symbol of Resurrection, story compared to Jesus, God of the Nile, Bringer of Life, Judge of the Dead Osiris
makes it possible for your soul to recognize your body, expensive, takes days mummification
Tomb never robbed, provided artifact evidence of Egyptian life? King Tut
Where was King tut discovered? Valley of the Kings, was not buried
Pharaoh-priest-artisans-scribes-farmers social hierarchy of egypt
women couldn't be? scribe or hod a government job
did not change, not realistic, symbolic and colorful - religious art and architecture
three forms of writing hieroglyphics, hieratic, demotic
characters that have meaning, inscribed into stone on temples, tombs, and monuments hieroglyphics
simplified hieroglyphics for religious texts used on papyrus hieratic
business transactions and daily life writing on paper demotic
Rosetta Stone was written in 3 languages demotic, hieroglyphics, ancient Greek
RS was deciphered by Jean Champillon
Before writing prehistory
Each city-state had its own government
found the tomb of King Tut Howard Carter
land between rivers mesopotamia
what are the modern day countries located in fertile crescent? Iran iraq Kuwait syria lebanon israel jordan
deciphered the Behistun Rock Sir Henry Rawlinson
Created by: fikott1