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AG - Unit 2 Review

Unit 2 Constitution Review

TermDefinition
Two ways to propose an amendment Amendments can be proposed either by a two-thirds majority vote in both houses of Congress or at a constitutional convention called by two-thirds of the States
Two ways to ratify an amendment Amendments can be ratified either by three-fourths of the State Legislatures or by conventions in three-fourths of the States
Article 1 of the US Constitution States that the Legislative Branch (Congress), which is made up of 2 houses - Senate and House of Representatives - is the branch of government that makes the laws for the US
Article 2 of the US Constitution States that the Executive Branch, which consists of the President, Vice-President, and President's Cabinet and Department members, is the branch of government that enforces (carries out) the laws made by Congress
Article 3 of the US Constitution States that the Judicial Branch, which is made up of the Supreme Court and other (lower) courts, is the branch of government that interprets the constitutionality of laws
Article 5 of the US Constitution Discusses how to amend/change the US Constitution
Article 6 of the US Constitution States that the US Constitution and national laws are the “supreme laws of the land;” all laws must agree with the US Constitution
The US Constitution has _____ Amendments 27
Expressed Powers Powers that the national government has, which are directly stated in the Constitution
Examples of Expressed Powers Coin money, declare war, establish a postal system, conduct foreign affairs
Reserved Powers Powers that the Constitution does not grant to the national gov’t and, at the same time, does not deny to the states; powers that are given to the states by the US Constitution
Examples of Reserved Powers Establish a local government, establish public school systems, pass laws relating to marriage/divorce, regulate driving
Concurrent Powers Powers that are shared between the national and state governments
Examples of Concurrent Powers Collect taxes, enforce laws, establish courts, conduct elections
Supremacy Clause When conflicts arise between national and state law, the Constitution ranks above all other forms of law in the US because it is “superior” to all others in power. An example of this would be the Obama Administration challenging Arizona Immigration Law
4th Amendment Protection of privacy; no unreasonable searches and seizures of property without probable cause or a search warrant
5th Amendment Right to be protected against testifying against ourselves (self-incrimination) or being tried for the same crime twice (double jeopardy); cannot be denied life, liberty, or property without due process of law
10th Amendment Rights of powers not granted to the Federal government are reserved for the states or people
15th Amendment Voting rights cannot be denied to any citizen based on race, color, or former status as a slave (granted blacks right to vote)
19th Amendment Prohibits the federal government and states from forbidding any citizen the right to vote based on sex (granted women right to vote)
25th Amendment Outlines presidential succession (who should take over the president’s position) in the event the president is unable to serve or dies in office
26th Amendment Lowered the national voting age to 18
Bill of Rights First 10 amendments of the US Constitution that guarantees the rights of individuals
Necessary and Proper Clause Also known as Elastic Clause; “makes all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the [government’s] powers, …”
Preamble Introduction to the US Constitution that outlines the 6 purposes of creating a new government
“To Form a More Perfect Union” To join together in order to protect and further the rights and interests of all
“To Establish Justice” To ensure fair treatment
“To Ensure Domestic Tranquility” To preserve peace
“To Provide for the Common Defense” To protect us from other people/countries who might try to harm us or who have harmed us
“To Promote the General Welfare” To promote the health, safety, and well-being of the citizens
"To Secure the Blessings of Liberty to Ourselves and our Posterity" To protect our rights and freedoms for all future generations
Legislative Branch Branch of the U.S. Government consisting of Congress (which is made up of 100 Senators and 435 House of Representatives) whose primary role is to make the laws
Executive Branch Branch of the U.S. Government made up of the President and Cabinet members whose primary role is to enforce (carry out) the laws
Judicial Branch Branch of the U.S. Government made up of the Supreme Court and other court officials whose primary role is to interpret the laws
Unicameral A system of government with only 1 lawmaking body (only one "house" or body of representatives)
Bicameral A system of government with 2 lawmaking bodies – Senate and House of Representatives
Federalism A form of government in which power is divided (shared) between the federal (or national) government and the states
Separation of Powers Dividing the power between the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government to prevent any one branch from acquiring too much power
Checks and Balances A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power (example: Congress removes from the bench a federal judge who has accepted a bribe)
Majority Rule
Popular Sovereignty The government gets its power from the people; can exist only with their consent
Limited Government A type of government in which the functions and powers of authority are written, limited, and restricted by law to protect the citizens
Examples of Checks and Balances President appoints Supreme Court judges, but the Senate must approve them (Leg. Branch checks power of Exec. Branch); Congress passes a law, but Supreme Court can overrule it by declaring the law unconstitutional (Jud. Branch checks power of Leg. Branch)
Created by: tmgilbert
 

 



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