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POLS 203-Ch. 3

Ch. 3 Vocabulary

Federalism a system of shared sovereignty between two levels of government – one national and one subnational - occupying the same geographic
Unitary System a centralized governmental system in which local or sub-divisional governments exercise only those powers given to them by the central government.
Confederal System a league of independent sovereign states, joined together by a central government that has only limited powers over them.
Division of Powers a basic principal of federalism established by the US Constitution, by which powers are divided between the national and state governments.
Expressed Powers Constitution or statutory powers that are expressly provided for by the US Constitution; also called enumerated powers.
Implied Powers the powers of the federal government that are implied by the expressed powers in the Constitution, particularly in Article 1, Section 8.
Necessary and Proper clause Article 1, Section 8, Clause 18, of the Constitution, which gives Congress the power to make all laws, “necessary and proper” for the federal government to carry out its responsibilities; also called the elastic clause.
Inherent Powers -the powers of the national government that, although not always expressly granted by the Constitution, are necessary to ensure the Nation’s integrity and survival as a political unit.
Police Powers the powers of a government body that enable it to create laws for the protection of the health, safety, welfare, and morals of the people. In the United States, most police powers are reserved to the states.
Concurrent Powers Powers held by both the federal and the state governments in a federal system.
Supremacy Clause Article IV, Clause 2, of the Constitution and federal laws superior to all conflicting state and local laws.
Secession the act of formally withdrawing from membership in an alliance; the withdrawal of a state from the federal Union.
Dual Federalism a system of government in which the federal and the state governments maintain diverse but sovereign powers.
Cooperative Federalism a model of federalism in which the states and the federal government cooperate in solving problems.
New Deal the policies ushered in by the Roosevelt administration in 1933 in an attempt to bring the United States out of the Great Depression.
Picket Fence Federalism a model of federalism in which specific policies and programs are administered by all levels of government-national, state, and local.
Preemption a doctrine rooted in the supremacy clause of the Constitution that provides that national laws or regulations governing a certain area take precedence over conflicting state laws or regulations governing that same area.
New Federalism a plan to limit the federal government’s role in regulating state governments and to give the states increased power in deciding how they should spend government revenues.
Devolution the surrender or transfer of powers to local authorities by a central government.
Federal Mandate a requirement in federal legislation that forces states and municipalities to comply with a central government.
Fiscal Federalism the allocation of taxes collected by one level of government (typically the national government) to another level (typically state or local governments).
Categorical Grant a federal grant targeted for a specific purpose as defined by federal law.
Block Grant a federal grant given to a state for a broad area, such as criminal justice or mental health programs.
Cross-cutting requirements requirements that apply to all federal grants.
Competitive Federalism a model of federalism in which state and local governments compete for businesses and citizens, who in effect “vote within their feet” by moving to jurisdictions that offer a competitive advantage.
Created by: Maddyjo