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Chapter 5

polis city-state, the basic political unit in Greece
acropolis a walled, high area around which a polis was typically build
agora marketplace, usually found below a polis's acropolis
helots state slaves of Sparta who farmed so that the Spartans could train for war
hoplites Spartan foot soldiers
hubris great pride that often led heroes to tragic ends
democracy government run by the people
Solon Athenian lawmaker who revised laws and created an elected council to help govern, the first step towards democracy
tyrant a leader who seizes power by force and claims to rule for the good of the people
Cleisthenes Athenian reformer, often called "the father of democracy'
direct democracy system of government in which all people vote directly on an issue
archon elected official who acted as the head of both the assembly and the Council of 500
phalanx a tight rectangle formation in which soldiers held long spears out ahead of their shields
Pericles military and political leader of Athens who is credited with most of the rebuilding of the city after the Persian War
Socrates first of the great Athenian philosophers, believed that working through a series of questions led people to discover the basic nature of life
Plato great philosopher and student of Socrates, wrote about government and other topics, founded the Academy
Aristotle great philosopher who studied at the Academy, used philosophy to pursue every kind of knowledge
reason clear and ordered thinking
logic the process of making inferences
Homer legendary poet from the 800s BC who composed the Iliad and the Odyssey
lyric poetry poetry which was sung with the accompaniment of an instrument called a lyre
Herodotus first major historian; lived during the wars with Persia and wrote about them
Thucydides historian who wrote about the Peloponnesian War
Alexander the Great Macedonian leader who ruled Greece and conquered Persia
Hellenistic Greeklike; describes a culture that was no longer purely Greek, but includes elements from Persia, Egypt, Central Asia, and other regions
Euclid Egyptian who formulated many of the geometry ideas we still learn today
Eratosthenes Egyptian scientist who calculated the size of the world, arriving at a figure remarkably close to the actual circumference of the globe
Archimedes one of the ancient world's greatest inventors, used mathematics and physics to create devices that would make life easier
Created by: tinsleylett