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EDS First Exam

What is the most important design factor for a sociable plaza? Location!
Why is location important for a sociable plaza? near large populations high-density areas with mixed uses
The film, 'Field of Dreams,' says, "If you build it, they will come." Is this film right? Why? No. If you build it they may come provided the location is right. Otherwise, the plaza will probably fail as a sociable place.
In high density areas, the best specific locations for a plaza are generally what? along streets or street corners with heavy pedestrian flow near shopping and restaurants (heavy pedestrian flow)
What is the second-most important design factor for a sociable plaza? Street-plaza relationship
What does it mean when a plaza generates "impulse use"? when people are drawn into a plaza without realizing it because the plaza is designed as an extension of the street.
How can design facilitate "impulse use"? Clear sightlines: "if people do not see a space, they won't use it" must be within 3 ft above/below street level. Beckoning devices: design elements that draw the user in Encouraging uses around the plaza that draw people. At least 50% retail or service
How do you prohibit "strip" plazas? The width of the plaza should be at least one third the length (otherwise, rear portions may not be well used).
What is the third-most important design factor for a sociable plaza? Sittability
Once the design has enticed people in, how can you hold them in? they can be held by seating
How much seating should a plaza have? 1 foot of seating for every 30 square feet of plaza space
T/F: seating can be either physically or socially comfortable. It doesn't have to be both. FALSE BITCH
What is the criteria for seating that is physically comfortable? not too high, too low, too narrow no lower than 1 ft, no higher than 3 ft no narrower than 16in (14 in if seating has back of at least 12in) at least 30in. wide if seating on both sides moveable chairs credited as 30 in of seating
What is the maximum percentage of seating allowed in movable chairs according to Whyte? 50%
What is the criteria for seating that is socially comfortable? seating choice: alone/one another/group, public/private long-term seating: better to plan for people "who will sit a while"
What does Whyte find that most sociable plazas have? a higher proportion of couples than in less used plazas more people in groups a higher than average proportion of women
What are the "less important" sociable plazafactors according to Whyte? (relative to 3 most important) Food, sun, water, trees, aesthetics, triangulation
What things are considered public space? streets, alleys, buildings, squares, bollards: everything that can be considered part of the built environment it also includes everything that takes place between buildings (users seated, standing walking, biking, etc.)
What is Gehl and Svarre's major research method? Describe it. "Direct observation." User are observed, their activities and behavior mapped in order to better understand the needs of users and how city spaces are used. The direct observations help to understand why some spaces are used and others are not.
What are the 5 key questions asked by public-life researchers? How many? (Counting users) Who? (Identifying users) Where? (locating users) What? (Describing user activities) How long? (Determining time patterns of users)
What are some possibilities for counting users? ("How Many") Before/after Comparing different times (daily variations, weekly variations, seasonal variations etc) Comparing different users and uses (seated, standing, in transit, conversing, eating, watching etc.)
Give an example of a study counting users. ("How Many") New Road, Brighton, England: Counts demonstrated that number of pedestrians increased by 62% after the road became a pedestrian-friendly street
What are some possibilities for identifying users? ("Who") Who uses public space? Men? Women? Younger people? Older People? People alone? people in groups? Useful in that these measures help one to plan and esign for particular types and groups of users--e.g. less abled, children, older people
Give an example of a study identifying users ("Who") Bryant Park, New York City: Park officer counts women and men--typically a proportion of 52% women and 48% men
What does studying "where" (locating users) entail? Studies where users are expected to go and stay in relation to buildings, street furniture, other users, and/or micro climate Important for planning and designing movement through the space as well as for locating fixed activities in the space.
Give an example of a study locating users. ("where") Grey Friar's Square in Copenhagen: photograph of how micro climate (sun) plays a role in users' staying in a given space and demonstrating how trees and benches serve as focal points for space use
What does studying "what" (describing user activities) entail? Provides "specific knowledge of the types of activities in an area" Broadly, can be divided into necessary getting to and from work) and optional activities ( strolling) Social activities among those who know each other vs. encounters with strangers
What does studying "How long" (determining time patterns of users) entail? Walking time or time spent staying. How long it take people to cover a certain distance, how long they stand in a certain place, and how long the activity lasts. Study of how fast pedestrians walk relative to factors like weather and age, etc.
What are the eight tools for public-life studies? 1. Counting 2. Mapping 3. Tracing 4. Tracking 5. Looking for traces 6. Photographing, filming, and videotaping 7. Keeping a diary 8. Test walks
Describe the "counting" tool for public-life studies. Most often: how many users are moving and how many staying in place? Using a handheld counter or making marks on paper as people walk past an imaginary line. Ten minutes every hour typically provides a "precise picture of daily rhythm"
Describe the "mapping" tool for public-life studies. Recording user behaviors on a plan of space or place studies Researcher can picture a "moment" in the life a place, or can combine several mappings to generate a more general picture of how the place is used by whom when and where
Describe the "tracing" tool for public-life studies. Drawing lines of user movement on a plan of space/place Observer watches people moving/draws their movements on the plan for a specific time period Difficult if many people moving through/using space Gives info on dominant line of low/less used areas.
Describe the "tracking" tool for public-life studies. Also called "shadowing" Following preselected users to register their movements Uses include measure walking speed or gathering info on which users use what routes or stop at what places.
Describe the "looking for traces" tool for public-life studies. Identifying secondhand indications of user movement/activities. Locating/mapping discarded objects Identifying indirect indications of user movement/activity Identifying environmental elements that suggest care toward place or neglect of place
Describe the "photographing, filming, and videotaping" tool for public-life studies. Describing public-life interactions and activities Documenting a site before and after revitalization Picturing life of places over time (time-lapse photography)
Describe the "keeping a diary" tool for public-life studies. Recording observations, activities, and events that are unusual or not readily located via tools 1-5. Researcher notes and describes anything of relevance (the habitual user who always sits at the same bench at noon)
Describe the "test walks" tool for public-life studies. Research and/or users move along a pre-selected route, noting important aspects of the movement experience (waiting times, obstacles, potential dangers, etc.)
What is Whyte's major assumption? That parks and plazas should be sociable places--they should draw large numbers of people together informally People attract people, therefore the need is a design that attracts people so that yet other people are attracted
Created by: sgreen37



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