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Ch.9

Progressive Era

TermDefinition
Progressive Movement Social reform movement in the early 20th century.
Florence Kelley Reformer who worked for the rights of women workers as well as against child labor; instrumental in getting a law passed in Illinois that prohibited child labor and limited work hours for women and regulating sweatshop conditions.
Muckrakers Journalist who alerted the public to the wrongdoings in politics and business; sometimes exaggerated the circumstances; often well respected journalists.
Initiative A process that allows the people to suggest legislation by signing a petition; citizens propose new laws.
Referendum An opportunity for citizens to vote directly on bills from the state legislature; citizens vote on proposed or existing laws.
Recall A vote on whether to remove a public official from office; voters can remove elected officials from office.
16th Amendment Established the income tax; to raise money for the government so that tariff rates could be lowered.
17th Amendment Provided for the direct election of senators by popular vote rather than senators being appointed by state legislatures.
18th Amendment Established Prohibition by prohibiting the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages.
19th Amendment Granted women's suffrage ( gave women the right to vote)
21st Amendment Repealed the 18th Amendment for Prohibition.
Women's Suffrage The right for women to vote.
Susan B. Anthony Leader of the women's suffrage movement, helped to define the movement's goals and beliefs and to lead its actions; led women to polls in Rochester, New York and was arrested for civil disobedience, convicted and fined $100.
Theodore Roosevelt President from 1901-1909; used power of the presidency to push for progressive reforms in business and in environmental policy; used the "bully pulpit" to seek support.
Square Deal Roosevelt's plan that called for limiting the power of trusts, promoting public health and safety, and improving working conditions.
Upton Sinclair Muckraker who wrote "The Jungle"- alerting the public about the meat packaging companies.
Meat Inspection Act Required federal government inspection of meat shipped across state lines; government inspected animals before they were slaughtered and after meat was processed.
Pure Food and Drug Act Outlawed foods and drugs containing harmful ingredients, and required that containers carry ingredient labels.
William Taft President from 1908-1912; hand-picked successor of Roosevelt; worked to secure Roosevelt's reforms rather than build on them.
Ballinger-Pinchot Affair 1909, Taft angered conservationist by appointing Richard Ballenger to Secretary of Interior, because he sided with business interests that wanted to develop public lands.
Gifford Pinchot Conservationist friend of Roosevelt; appointed the first leader of the Forestry Service.
Bull-Moose Party The progressives split from the Republican party in the 1912 election to form their own party, the New Progressive Party, with T. Roosevelt s its candidate.
Woodrow Wilson President from 1912-1920; considered the third and last progressive president. Established the Federal Trade Commission Act, Clayton Anti-trust Act, Underwood Tariff, and the Federal Reserve Act.
Clayton Anti-trust Act Strengthened the anti-trust laws against business trusts; declared that labor unions were not trusts and could not be sued under anti-trust laws.
Federal Reserve System A centralized banking system for the U.S. with 12 regional banks under federal control to help stabilize the currency, to set rules for other banks, and to provide financial services to the U.S. government.
Carrie Chapman Catt Leader of the National American Women's Suffrage Association; believed in careful state by state strategy, support Wilson even if he doesn't support suffrage (democrats were smarter than republicans), and act ladylike, don't embarrass the movement.
Ida Tarbell Muckraker who wrote "The History of the Standard Oil Company, exposed the corrupt practices of the Standard Oil Company (owned by Rockefeller)
Direct Primary A process in which the people, not party bosses, choose the candidates for an election.
Temperance Moderation in drinking alcohol; major goal of Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
Mother Jones Reformers who organized unions for workers in the mining field, whose working conditions were harsh.
Socialism Economic and political philosophy favoring government control of property and income.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire Almost 150 dead from a fire in a multi-story factory; many women could not escape because some exits were locked to prevent theft; some women jumped to their deaths; led to fire codes in buildings.
Arbitration The practice of having a third party decide a dispute between labor and management.
Scientific Management A system that organized the workplace into simple tasks that unskilled labor could do when closely supervised by a manager.
The Jungle 1906, book written by Upton Sinclair which exposed the filthy conditions in the meat packing industry.
Conservationism The planned management of natural resources, involving the protection of some wilderness areas and the development of others for the common good.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) A civil rights organization formed by Dubois that represented the interests of African Americans (and other minorities) in legal matters.
Payne-Aldrich Tariff A set of tax regulations, enacted by Congress in 1909, that failed to significantly reduce tariffs on manufactured goods.
Federal Trade Commission (FTC) A federal agency, established in 1914, to investigate and stop unfair business practices.
Created by: GCUSHistory