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APUSH Terms 10-13

TermDefinition
george washington first president; appointed as president in 1789-1797; national reputation from being commander in the revolutionary war; led battle of trenton against hessians; defeated a small british regiment in princeton, nj in 1777
john adams second president; federalist leader; elected in 1796; largely unsuccessful; alien and sedition acts and xyz affair; opposed largely by thomas jefferson
alexander hamilton washington's secretary of treasury; federalist leader; proposed national bank; shot and killed by burr; planned to make the US a manufacturing empire; largely opposed by thomas jefferson
thomas jefferson third president; elected in 1800-1808; democratic-republican leader; opposed taxes and large govt; LA purchase; wrote kentucky resolve; opposed greatly by alexander hamilton and john adams
implied powers powers that are not necessarily stated in the constitution but are assumed to exist to implement expressed powers
states' rights rights and powers held by the individual states rather than the national govt
necessary and proper clause (elastic clause) allows the govt to make laws it needs to carry out its own powers (implied powers)
federalist party leaders: john adams, alexander hamilton; loose interpretation of const.; manufacturing and industy; large national govt
whiskey rebellion (1791) riots broke out in PA over a tax on distilled alcohol; angered many western farmers who farmed grain for whiskey
democratic-republican party leaders: thomas jefferson, james madison; originally anti-federalists; strict interpretation of const.; agricultural; small national govt and strong state govts
citizen genet french ambassador sent to US to gain american support for their war w britain; was asked to stop trying to gain support and refused; could not return to france due to complications at home; stayed and lived in US
jays treaty (1794) sought to settle issues with britain and france; tried to preserve neutrality; unpopular w US public
pinckneys treaty (1795) resolved territorial disputes between spain and US; gave US rights to MS river and NE port, which was still under spanish control
battle of fallen timbers (1794) defeated natives after being defeated twice; natives did not receive help from british allies; against northwest indian confederations resistance; last battle of northwest indian war; secured white settlement in northwest territory
treaty of greenville (1795) result of battle of fallen timbers; gave most northwest territory to US from natives; guaranteed white supremacy over natives
xyz affair (1797-1798) france unhappy abt jays treaty; 3 anonymous US delegates sent to negotiate w france; france asks for a bribe to negotiate, delegates refuse; citizens in US were outraged; causes trade w france to be temporarily suspended
alien and sedition acts (1798) imposed by adams; alien: citizen for 14 years to vote; sedition: banned public criticizing of govt.; used to try and diminish democratic-republican power; many democratic-republicans felt it was unconstitutional; cause of virginia and kentucky resolves
virginia and kentucky resolves (1798) virginia: james madison; kentucky: thomas jefferson; result of alien and sedition acts; stated that states have the right to ignore federal laws it felt was unconstitutional
nullification declare a federal law unconstitutional
revolution of 1800 adams to jefferson; peaceful pass of power from federalists to democratic-republicans; jefferson made many changes to the US immediately
midnight judges (1800) judiciary representatives appointed by adams the night before he left office; an attempt to keep federalists in power; angered jefferson and madison
john marshall chief justice of supreme court; appointed by adams; federalist; declared that supreme court has the power to declare laws unconstitutional
marbury vs. madison (1803) madison refused to open a midnight judge appointment letter (william marburys); marbury sued demanding madison to release the letter; marshall ruled supreme court did not have that power
samuel chase supreme court justice; representative of maryland; only supreme court justice to be impeached (impeached by house or reps) for bias
impressment the capturing of american ships and forcing the sailors to join the opposing army; both britain and france did this prior to the war of 1812
chesapeake affair (1807) british warship leopard and american frigate ship chesapeake; pursued and attacked chesapeake looking for british deserters (4 were found and removed); ship was surrendered; british victory
embargo act (1807) cut off all trade; result of british impressment; hurt US economy
non-intercourse act (1809) cut off trade to only britain and france; could trade with anyone else; solution to economic problems of embargo act
macon's bill #2 (1810) tried to motivate france and britain to stop seizing US ships; lifted embargos with britain and france for three months; if one attempted impressment; trade with them would end
james monroe 5th pres (1816-1825); era of good feelings; democratic-republican; missouri compromise; monroe doctrine;
henry clay leader of whig party; second national bank; sec of state under quincy adams; opposed andrew jackson; war hawk; american system; supported large manufacturing and industrial country
tecumseh shawnee war chief and political leader; fought on british side in war of 1812; attempted to recruit southern creeks; fled from general william henry harrison; died at battle of the thames in 1813
andrew jackson 7th pres (1829-1837); born in poverty; supporter of the common man; democratic party leader; supported states rights and slavery extension; opposed the whig party; hated henry clay; forced relocation of indian tribes
battle of new orleans (1815) after treaty of ghent; british forces marched in new orleans; jackson led 4,500 soldiers and attacked and won; jackson became a war hero;
battle of horseshoe bend (1814) in tallapoosa, AL;
treaty of ghent (1815) americans and creeks vs. red sticks and creeks; final battle of the creek war; andrew jackson; americans and creek allies "slaughtered" the opposition; treaty of fort jackson; creek handed over 50 mil acres (almost half their land)
hartford convention (1814-1815) federalists met in hartford, connecticut and discussed new england secession, opposition to war, and nullification; when treaty of ghent passed and battle of ne was won, they looked foolish; federalists last stand
american system (1816) 3 parts; tariff to protect and promote american industry; second national bank; federal subsidies for roads, canals and other internal improvements to develop profitable markets for agriculture
era of good feelings (1816-1823) US had sense of national purpose and patriotism and unity after "winning" the war of 1812; monroe presidency; economic growth; economic depression in 1819
missouri compromise (1820) effort to settle dispute over amount of slave states vs. amount of free states; missouri was a slave state; maine was a free state; anything north of 36-30 line prohibited slavery
gibbons vs. ogden (1824) supreme court held the power to reglulate interstate commerce (by commer clause of const.) and the power to regulate navigation
panic of 1819 economic depression in peace times; financial crisis; lasted until 1840s; prices up and unemployment went up
mcculloch vs. maryland (1819) maryland attempted to interrupt operation of national bank; imposed taxes on any notes charted in banks other than maryland's;
fletcher vs. peck (1810) supreme court ruled a state law unconst.
dartmouth college vs. woodward (1819) new hampshire legis. attempted to make dartmouth college a public institute; supreme court owned it before the state was created; declared no state shall make any law impairing the obligation of contracts
adams-onis treaty (1819) treaty between US and spain; ceded florida t the US; defined boundary between US and new spain
monroe doctrine (1823) any intervention by external powers in the politics of the americas is a potentially hostile act against the US
washington irving 19th century author; "rip can winkle" and "legend of sleepy hollow"; US ambassador to spain in 1840s;
james fenimore cooper 19th century author; wrote the last of the mohicans
eli whitney american inventor; pushed for interchangeable parts; invented cotton gin; sparked the rebirth of slavery, as beforehand it was on the decline
william henry harrison 9th pres (1841); served one month then died of pneumonia; gave longest inaugural address, which caused his sickness due to weather; fought in both revolutionary war and war of 1812; his forces killed tecumseh
Created by: kelliwest0918