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Chapter 2

Fertile Crescent a region of rich farmland that curves from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf centered on the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
Mesopotamia the area that lies between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Southwest Asia
ziggurat a Sumerian temple made of sun-dried brick that was dedicated to the chief god or goddess of a particular city-state
city-state a political unit that includes a town or city and the surrounding land controlled by it
polytheism the belief in many gods
cuneiform Sumerian writing
Sargon King of Akkad in Mesopotamia; considered the founder of Mesopotamia & conquered many cities along the middle of Euphrates to Northern Syria. He established trade routes with the Indus Valley, coast of the Oman islands, & the shores of the Persian Gulf.
Hammurabi King of Babylonia, he was a brilliant military leader who brought all of Mesopotamia into the Babylonian Empire, He is known for his uniform code of 282 laws, the earliest known set of written laws.
Indo-Europeans a group of semi-nomadic people who migrated from Southern Russia to the Indian subcontinent around 1700 BC
steppes arid grasslands
Nebuchadnezzar II Chaldean king of Babylon from 605 to 562 BC; he rebuilt Babylon into a beautiful city noted for its famed Hanging Gardens
Judaism a monotheistic religion originating with the Israelites, tracing its origins to Abraham, and having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Hebrew scriptures and the Talmund
Torah the first five books in the Hebrew Bible; the most sacred texts of the Jewish faith
Abraham According to the Bible, the originator of the Jewish line of descent; according to the Qu'ran, the ancestor of the Arabs; he held a deep devotion to and a great trust in the will of God.
covenant a binding agreement
patriarch an ancestral "father" of Judaism
Moses Hebrew prophet and lawgiver; according to the Bible, he led Hebrew people out of Egypt and back to Canaan in the Exodus. According to the Bible, it was during this journey the he recieved the Ten Commandments from God.
Exodus the escape of the Hebrews from Egypt
Diaspora the dispersal of the Jews from their homeland in Palestine during the 2600 years that followed the destruction of the Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem in 586 BC by the Chaldeans
monotheism the belief in one God
Cyrus the Great King of Persia and founder of the Persian Empire; he defeated the Median army and united the Persians and Medians under his rule.
Darius I King of Persia from 522 to 486 BC; he reorganized and strengthened the Persian Empire by reforming the army and the government.
satrap governors of ancient Persia
Xerxes King of Persia; his armies invaded Greece but were eventually defeated by the Greeks.
Zoroaster Religious teacher and prophet of ancient Persia; he founded a religion known as Zoroastrianism based on teh idea that people have free will and can act as they choose.
dualism the belief that the world is controlled by two opposing forces, good and evil
dynasty a family of rulers whose right to rule is hereditary
Created by: tinsleylett