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chapter 2

TermDefinition
Fertile crescent a region of rich farmland that curves from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf centered on the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
Mesopotamia the area that lies between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Southwest Asia
Ziggurat a Sumerian temple made of sun-dried brick that was dedicated to the chief god or goddess of a particular city-state
City-state a political unit that includes a town or a city and the surrounding land controlled by it
Polytheism the belief in many gods
Dynasty a family of rulers whose right to rule is hereditary
Cuneiform Sumerian writing
Sargon (died c. 2300 BC) King of Akkad in Mesopotamia;he is considered the founder of Mesopotamia and conquered many cities along the middle Euphrates to northern Syria. He established trade routes with the Indus Valley, the coast of the Oman islands,and the sho
Hammurabi (ruled c. 1792-1750 BC) King of Babylonia; he was a brilliant military leader who brought all of Mesopotamia into the Babylonia Empire. He is known for his uniform code of 282 laws, the earliest known set of written laws.
Indo-Europeans a group of semi-nomadic people who migrated from southern Russia to the Indian subcontinent around 1700 BC
Steppes arid grasslands
Nebuchadnezzar II Chaldean king of Babylon from 605 to 562; he rebuilt Babylon into a beautiful city noted for its famed Hanging Gardens.
Judaism a monotheistic religion originating with the Israelite's, tracing its origins to Abraham, and having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Hebrew Scriptures and the Talmud.
Torah the first five books of the Hebrew Bible; the most scared texts of the Jewish faith.
Abraham According to the bible, the originator of the Jewish line of descent; according to the ancestor of the Arabs; he held a deep devotion to and a great trust in the will of God
Covenant a binding agreement
Patriarch an ancestral "father" of Judaism
Moses Hebrew prophet and lawgiver; according to the Bible, he led the Hebrew people out pf Egypt and back to Canaan in the Exodus. According to the Bible, it was during this journey that he received the Ten Commandments from God
Exodus the escape of the Hebrews from Egypt
Diaspora the dispersal of the Jews from their homeland in Palestine during the 2,600 years that followed the destruction of the Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem in 586 BC by the Chaldean's
Monotheism the belief in one god
Cyrus the great King of Persia and founder of the Persian Empire; he defeated the Median army and united the Persians and Medians under his rule.
Darius I King of Persia from 522 to 486 BC; he recognized and strengthened the Persian Empire by reforming the army and the government.
Satraps governors of ancient Persia
Xerxes King of Persia; his armies invaded Greece but were eventually defeated by the Greeks.
Zoroaster Religious teacher and prophet of ancient Persia; he founded a religion known as Zoroastrianism based on the idea that people have free will and can act as they chose.
Dualism the belief that the world is controlled by two opposing forces, good and evil.
Created by: abbyriojas
 

 



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