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AP Gov Unit 1 Vocab

TermDefinition
bills of attainder act of a legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of some crime and punishing them without privilege of a judicial trial
block grants federal grants given more or less automatically to states or communities to support broad programs in areas such as community development and social services
category-formula grants federal grants that can be used only for specific purposes of state and local spending, such as nondiscrimination provisions; distributed according to a formula specified in legislation or in administrative regulations
checks & balances an important part of the Madisonian model designed to limit government's power by requiring that power be balanced among the different governmental institutions. the institutions continually check one another's activities
concurrent powers powers shared between national and state governments
Confederation LEAST COMMON; all power held at subnational level; national government holds very limited powers
cooperative federalism powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government; may share costs, administration, and even blame for programs that work poorly
delegate model a legislator who mirrors the preferences of his or her constituents
delegated powers powers given to national government only
devolution responsibility shift from nation to state
dictatorship a leader ruling by using fear and an army
dual federalism both the states and the nation government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies
elite theory theory that societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization
enumerated powers powers of the federal government that are specifically addressed in the Constitution
ex post facto law law that retroactively changes the legal consequences (or status) of actions that were committed, or relationships that existed, before the enactment of the law. In criminal law, it may criminalize actions that were legal when committed
extradition legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the officials of one state to officials of the state in which the crime is alleed to have been committed
factions interest groups arising from the unequal distribution of property or wealth that James Madison attacked
Federalist Papers collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name "Publius" to defend the Constitution in detail; characterizes the framers' intents
intergovernmental revenue strings attached; feds give instruction as condition to continuing to receive the money
judicial review the power of the courts to determine whether acts of Congress, and by implication the executive, are in accord with the U.S. Constitution
majority in a democracy, choosing among alternatives requires that the majority's desire be respected
monarchy king rules
New Federalism Richard Nixon; feds still pay for programs; return administrative control to states
oligarchy small group of people rule
pluralist theory theory that emphasizes that politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies
plurality single-winner voting system often used to elect executive officers or to elect members of a legislative assembly which is based on single-member constituencies
project grant federal grants given for specific purposes and awarded on the basis of the merits of applications; a type o the categorical grants available to states and localities
republic government that derives its power, directly or indirectly, from the people. national and subnational levels each have power
separation of powers important part of Madisonian model that requires each of the three branches of government to be relatively independent of the others so that one cannot control the others. powers are shared
trustee model a legislator who uses his or her best judgement to make policies in the interests of the people
unfunded mandate when the federal government requires state and local action but does not provide the funds to pay for the action
unitary government MOST COMMON; a way of organizing a nation so that all power resides in the central government.
writ of habeas corpus a court order requiring jailers to explain to a judge why they are holding a prisoner in custody
writ of mandamus a court order forcing action. in the dispute leading to Marbury v. Madison, Marbury and his associates asked the supreme court to issue a writ ordering Madison to give them their commissions
Created by: MsFish