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U.S. Ch. 8

The Progressive Movement 1890-1920

TermDefinition
2. direct primary a vote held by all members of a political party to decide their candidate for public office
3. initiative the right of citizens to place a measure or issue before the voters or the legislature for approval
4. referendum the practice of letting voters accept or reject measures proposed by the legislature
5. recall the right that enables voters to remove unsatisfactory elected officials from office
6. suffrage the right to vote
7. prohibition laws banning the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages
8. LEGISLATION a proposed law to be voted on by a governing body
9. ADVOCATE to propose a certain position or viewpoint
10. Jacob Riis Danish immigrant,; became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s; wrote 'How The Other Half Lives" in 1890.
11. Robert M. La Follette Progressive who reformed the system so that the people themselves could vote on who candidates would be. Made sure people were given jobs based on merit system
12. Carrie Chapman Catt American feminist leader who led the women’s rights movement for more than 25 years, culminating in the adoption of the Nineteenth Amendment (for woman suffrage) to the U.S. Constitution in 1920.
13. Social Darwanism based on Charles Darwin’s theories of evolution and natural selection, states that humans have developed through competition and natural selection with only the strongest surviving
14. arbitration settling a dispute by agreeing to accept the decision of an impartial outsider
15. insubordination disobedience
16. REGULATE to govern or direct according to rule
17. ENVIRONMENTAL having to do with the environment; the complex system of plants, animals, water, and soil
18. Square Deal President Theodore Roosevelt's domestic program formed upon three basic ideas: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection.
19. United Mine Workers strike in which Roosevelt ordered federal troops to intervene and take over the coal mines if the owners refused to negotiate; set a new precedent of intervention on the side of laborers; aka. The Coal strike of 1902 was a strike by the United Mine Workers of America in the anthracite coalfields of eastern Pennsylvania. Miners struck for higher wages, shorter workdays and the recognition of their union.
20. Hepburn Act 1906: restricted railroad "free passes" and expanded the Interstate Commerce Commission to include in its powers the prosecution of express companies, sleeping-car companies, and pipelines. this federal law that gave the Interstate Commerce Commission the power to set maximum railroad rates and extend its jurisdiction. This led to the discontinuation of free passes to loyal shippers
21. Upton Sinclair author of The Jungle that inspired pro-consumer federal laws regulating meat, food, and drugs
22. Meat Inspection Act 1906: An act passed which allowed the Federal Government to inspect and ensure the quality of meat products in the United States.
23. Pure Food and Drug Administration 1906: An act which called for the regulation of consumer products to prevent false advertising.
24. Gifford Pinchot a notable conservationist who headed the federal Division of Forestry.
25. Richard A. Ballinger Secretary of the Interior; caused Republican Party split over conservationism conflict with Pinchot
26. Children's Bureau Apart of the Labor Department, they focused on problems growing out of the war: the increase in employment of married women, the finding of day care for children of working mothers, and the growth of both child labor and delinquency.
27. income tax a tax based on the net income of a person or business
28. unfair trade practices trading practices that derive a gain at the expense of the competition
29. ACADEMIC associated with higher learning at a scholarly institution
30. UNCONSTITUTIONAL not in accordance with or authorized by the constitution of a state or society
31. Progressive Party a third party in the United States formed in 1912 by former President Theodore Roosevelt after he lost the presidential nomination of the Republican Party to his former protégé, incumbent President William Howard Taft; associated with the presidential campaigns of Theodore Roosevelt, Robert La Follette, and Henry Wallace.
32. New Nationalism Teddy Roosevelt's Progressive political stance during the 1912 election, which promoted a centralized federal government that could regulate the economy in order to provide social equality. He supported child labor laws, a minimum wage, and regulation of corporations.
33. New Freedom Policy of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson that promoted antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters.
34. Federal Reserve Act created 12 district banks that would lend $ at discount rates (could increase/decrease amt. of $ in circulation); loosen/tighten credit with nation's needs; first central banking system since 1836
35. Federal Trade Commission investigated companies and issued cease-and-desist orders against unfair trade practices; could be appealed in court, but still a step toward consumer protection
36. Clayton Antitrust Act Lengthened Sherman Anti-Trust Act's list of practices. Exempted labor unions from being called trusts, legalized strikes and peaceful picketing by labor union members.
37. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People created in 1909 by a group of liberals (including Du Bois, Jane Addams, John Dewey, Ida B Wells) to eradicate racial discrimination
1. muckraker a journalist who uncovers abuses and corruption in a society