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Intro to Biochem

Biochemistry Information

What is biochemistry? The study of chemical processes and reactions occuring in living matter. It is carbon based.
What is another name for biochemisrty? Organic Chemistry
What are organic compounds? Carbon compounds made by living things.
What are the six most common elements for living things? Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur
What is the central atom of life? Carbon
How are macromolecules built? By linking a set of building blocks(a monomer) together into long chains(a polymer)
What is a monomer? A basic unit that repeats over and over in organic compounds.
Amino Acids end with which suffix? -ine
Enzymes end with which suffix? -ase
What are the four types of organic compounds? Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids
Carbs include... Sugars and starches
Lipids include... Fats, oils, and waxes
Proteins include... Amino Acids and enzymes
Nucleic Acids include... DNA, RNA, and ATP
What elements do carbohydrates have? Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen
What is the monomer of carbohydrates? Monosaccharides
What are saccharides? Sugars
What are the main functions of carbohydrates Quick energy Part of cell membrane Storage Structure
What are the three different types of carbohydrates? Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides
Monosaccharide examples: Glucose Fructose Galactose
3 or more monosaccharides equals a Polysaccharide
What causes diabetes? The body's ability to produce or respond to the hormone insulin is impaired
What elements are in lipids? Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
What is the monomer of lipids? Glycerol and 3 fatty acids
What are the main functions of lipids? Storage Energy reserves Cell membrane Protection and warmth
What does lactase break down? Lactose
What are Triglyceride and Triglycerol made up of? Glycerol and 3 fatty acids
What does hydrophobic mean? Insoluble in water
What are 3 important characteristics of lipids? Hydrophobic Many C-H bonds Monomer shaped like an E
Glycerol+3 fatty acids= Triglyceride+water
What are lipids abundant in? What are carbohydrates abundant in? Lipids have lots of hydrogen Carbohydrates have lots of oxygen
What are polymers? Proteins
What are some characteristics of Saturated lipids? Single bonds only Each carbon is saturated with a hydrogen atom Solid at room temp Leads to cholesterol issues
What are some examples of Saturated lipids? Butter Ice cream Steak Trans animal fats from hydrogenation
What are some characteristics of unsaturated lipids? Double/triple bonds Have C-C mixed with C-H bonds Molecule is bent Liquid at room temp Monosaturated fats and lowers bad cholesterol and raises good cholesterol
In carbon atoms which fatty acids can be bonded with more hydrogen atoms? Unsaturated fatty acids
What are some characteristics of phospholipids? Has two fatty acids attached to the glycerol In the cell membrane
What are the elements in proteins? Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen
What is the monomer in proteins? Amino acids
What are some functions of proteins? Basic building blocks of living material Transportation in the cell Immune system Movement Hormones Hair, muscles and fingernails
How many different amino acids are there? 20
What do the different amino acids do? Form various combinations to form different proteins
What are peptide bonds? Amino Acids are linked together by peptide bonds when WATER is removed
1 amino acid is a... Peptide
2 amino acids linked together is a... Dipeptide
3+ amino acids linked together is a... Polypeptide or a protein
What is the protein structure? The function of a protein depends on its 3D structure The shape determines its function The proteins fold into 3D structures based on the type of amino acids in the protein Ex:fibrous and globular proteins
What are the elements of nucleic acids? Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Phosphorus
What is the monomer of nucleic Acids? Nucleotide
What are some functions of nucleic Acids? Controls cell activities Genetic material (DNA & RNA) Energy (ATP)
What is the difference between DNA and RNA? DNA carries the genetic code RNA carries out the instructions
What are nucleotides are arranged to form... DNA or RNA
What are reactants? Substances required for a reaction (Starting materials)
What are products? Substances that are made during a reaction (End result)
What is dehydration synthesis? Bonding molecules together by removing water
What is hydrolysis? Water is being added to break bonds
What do dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis both do? Form new molecules
Enzymes are a type of??? Protein
What are enzymes? Catalysts for biological reactions speeds up a reaction Lowers energy needs for a reaction
What is a substrate? Substance an enzyme acts upon
What is an active site? Region where substrate and enzyme bonds together
Factors affecting enzyme action Temperature concentration of substrate v enzymes pH
Created by: jaslynhillery13
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