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Ch. 7/8

Immigration and Urbanization

TermDefinition
Ellis Island Immigration station, located in New York, for those who came from Europe.
Angel Island Immigration station, located in California, for those who came from Asia (Chinese)
Melting Pot Many nationalities/ cultures merging together.
Nativism Extreme dislike of immigrants by native born Americans.
Chinese Exclusion Act 1882, Law that prohibited immigration of Chinese Laborers and limited rights of Chinese already in the U.S.
Urbanization The movement of people from rural/ farm areas to the cities; the growth of cities.
Americanization Movement Program to teach American culture to immigrants. (English, American History, and Government)
Tenements Low cost, multifamily housing for urban workers.
Social Gospel Movement Movement that urged people to help the poor.
Gentlemen's Agreement Compromise with the government of Japan to limit Japanese immigration to the U.S. rather than to outright ban it.
Jane Addams Young social reformer who established a settlement house (Hull House) in Chicago.
Political Machine A group that controlled a political party; unofficial organization deigned to keep a particular party or group in power in cities.
Graft illegal use of political influences for personal gain.
Boss Tweed William Marcy Tweed- Head of New York City's powerful Democratic political machine.
Patronage Giving money or support to a business or organization.
Pendleton Civil Service Act A law that set up a civil service commission to oversee the hiring of people for government jobs; only those who scored highest on an exam were given certain jobs, not political supporters.
Orville and Wilbur Wright 1903, credited with creation of the airplane; first to accomplish flight.
Booker T. Wahington Proposed that African Americans concentrate on achieving economic goals rather than political ones, vocational goals.
Tuskegee Institute Black college started by a former slave to educate African Americans.
W.E.B. Dubois Early civil rights leader who wanted racial equality right away and who started two organizations to help African Americans. (The Niagara Movement, NAACP)
Niagara Movement 1905, Dubois met with 29 others near Niagara Falls to talk about a plan of action toward racial equality.
Ida B. Wells Crusader for women's rights and civil rights for African-Americans, especially against lynching.
Poll Tax Tax that must be paid before a person could vote.
Grandfather Clause A way used to help illiterate whites get around literacy tests; if your grandfather had been eligible to vote before the literacy test was required, then you were eligible to vote.
Segregation The separation of people on the basis of race.
Jim Crow Law's Laws that separated blacks and whites in public accommodations in the south.
Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court ruling that segregation is legal through the policy of "separate but equal".
Mass Culture The set of ideas and values that develop from a common exposure to the same media, news sources, music, and art.
Settlement House Community center, or institution, that attempted to assimilate immigrants by addressing problems in slum neighborhoods.
Tammany Hall New York City's most powerful Democratic political machine.
Joseph Pulitzer Owner of the New York World newspaper; introduced a large Sunday edition.
William Randolph Hearst Owner of the New York Morning Journal and the San Francisco Examiner; published exaggerated and made up stories.
Credit Mobilier 1868, officers of the Union Pacific Railroad formed a construction company; gave contracts to lay railroad track at 2-3 times the actual cost and kept all the profits; paid off congressmen.
Spoils System System of giving jobs to political supporters (not illegal, but made government insufficient, and possibly corrupt).
Civil Service The non-military branches of government administration.
Chester Arthur Collector of tariffs at the port of New York, removed by President Hayes for corruption; 1880, V.P. nominee (Rep.); becomes Pres. after Garfield assassination. (Poster boy for spoils system)
George Eastman Developed a series of more convenient alternatives to heavy glass plates in developing pictures; photographers could use flexible film, coated with gelatin emulsions.
New Immigrants Eastern and Southern Europeans
Jacob Riis Photographer who exposed the poverty and corruption of American cities; wrote How the Other Half Lives.
Thomas Nast Political Cartoonist who is credited with taking down Tammany Hall and Boss Tweed.
Blue Laws A local regulation that prohibits private activities such as selling alcoholic beverages on Sunday.
Suburb A residential community near a city.
Lynching The murder of an accused person by a mob without a lawful trial.
Munn v. Illinois The Supreme Court decision that allowed states to regulate businesses within their borders.
Subsidy A government payment to develop certain key industries.
Created by: GCUSHistory