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U.S. Ch 6

Urban America

1. steerage The cheapest accommodations on a steamship
2. nativism An extreme dislike of immigrants by native-born people
3. immigrant a person who comes to live permanently in a foreign country.
4. ethnic relating to a population subgroup (within a larger or dominant national or cultural group) with a common national or cultural tradition.
5. Ellis Island island in the harbor of New York used to process immigrants coming from Europe after 1892
6. Jacob Riis Danish born journalist who showed America the life of the poor in his book "How The Other Half Lives"
7. Angel Island opened in January 1910 in California to process Asian immigrants
8. Chinese Exclusion Act passed by Congress in 1882 barring Chinese immigration for 10 years and preventing the Chinese in the United States from becoming citizens
9. skyscraper Tall steel frame buildings
10. tenement Apartment buildings
11. political machine An informal political group designed to gain and keep power, came about partly because cities had grown much faster than their governments
12. party boss People who ran political machines
13. graft Getting money through dishonest or questionable means
INCENTIVE a thing that motivates or encourages one to do something.
TRIGGER An event or circumstance that is the cause of a particular action, process, or situation
14. George Plunkitt one of New York's most powerful city bosses defended what he called "honest graft"
15. William "Boss" Tweed leader of Tammany Hall during the 1860s and 1870s; his corruption landed him in jail in 1874
16. individualism The idea that Americans no matter how humble their Origins could rise in society and go as far as their talent and commitment would take them
17. Social Darwinism Philosophy Loosely derived from Darwin's theories it's strongly reinforced the idea of individualism
18. Philanthropy the desire to promote the welfare of others, expressed especially by the generous donation of money to good causes.
19. settlement house an institution in an inner-city area providing educational, recreational, and other social services to the community
20. Americanization At Public Schools, immigrant children were taught English and learned about American history and culture
EVOLUTION 1. the process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of the earth.
PUBLISH Prepare an issue for public sale
21. Gilded Age this age appeared to sparkle but critics pointed to corruption, poverty, crime, and great disparities in wealth between rich and the poor
22. Gospel of Wealth advocated by Andrew Carnegie this called for a gentler version of Social Darwinism, calling on wealthy Americans to engage in philanthropy and use their fortunes to create the conditions that would help people help themselves
23. Mark Twain Samuel L. Clemens wrote under the pen name, Mark Twain, and went on to author several novels, including two major classics of American literature: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Adventures of Huckleberry Fin
24. Social Gospel This movement worked to better conditions in cities according to the biblical ideas of Charity and justice
25. Jane Addams Open the famous Hull House in Chicago in 1889
26. populism A movement to increase Farmers political power and to work for legislation in their interest
27. greenbacks Paper currency that could not be exchanged for gold or silver coins
28. inflation A decline in the value of money
29. deflation An increase in the value of money and a decrease in prices
30. cooperatives Marketing organizations that try to increase prices and lower cost for their members
31. graduated income tax Taxing higher earnings more heavily
BOND an agreement with legal force, in particular
CURRENCY a system of money in general use in a particular country
STRATEGY plan of action or policy designed to achieve a major or overall aim.
32. Farmers Alliance In 1890 the alliance had between 1.5 and 3 million members with strong support in the South and on the Great Plains particularly and Kansas-Nebraska North Dakota and South Dakota
33. Peoples Party Also known as populist they nominated candidates to run for Congress in the state legislature
34. William Jennings Bryan Nominated by the Democrats in the election of 1896 he was a strong supporter of silver
35. William McKinley Governor of Ohio chosen to run on the Republican ticket in the election of 1896 he ran what was called a front-porch campaign
36. poll tax First required in the state of Mississippi in 1890 this $2 fee limited the voting ability of African-Americans
37. segregation Separation of races
38. Jim Crow Laws mandated the segregation of public schools, public places, and public transportation, and the segregation of restrooms, restaurants, and drinking fountains for whites and blacks
39. lynching Hangings without proper Court proceedings
40. DISCRIMINATION the unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people or things, especially on the grounds of race, age, or sex
41. Ida B. Wells Fiery young African-American woman from Tennessee who launched a Fearless Crusade against lynching in 1892
42. Booker T. Washington He proposed African Americans concentrate on achieving economic goals rather than political ones; in 1895 he gave a speech known as the Atlanta Compromise which argued African Americans postpone the fight for civil rights and concentrate on preparing themselves educationally and vocationally
43. W. E. B. Du Bois The leader of a new generation of African American activist, his 1903 book The Souls of Black Folk explained why he saw no advantage and giving up civil rights even temporarily