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Computer 101

_________ is an area of a computer that holds data that is waiting to be processed. Memory
A computer processes data in a device called the ___________. CPU
________(hard drives, disks, tapes, etc.) is the area where data can be left on a permanent basis while it is not needed for processing. Storage
The results produced by a computer are known as computer ____________. Output
The term "hardware" refers to the computer itself and to components called ___________ __________ that expand the computer's input, output, and storage capabilities. peripheral devices
__________ allows one or more words in a document to act as a link to another document. Hypertext
Computer hardware in and of itself does not provide a particularly useful mind tool. To be useful, a computer requires a computer program or __________, which is a set of instructions that tells a computer how to perform a particular task. Software
Traditionally, computers have been classified into four categories, from least to most powerful, are microcomputers, minicomputers, mainframe computers, and ___________. Supercomputers
Microcomputers, also known as _________ computers, are typically found in homes and small businesses. Prices range from $500 to $5,000 but consumers typically purchase systems in the middle of this range, spending from $1,000 to $2,000. Personal
A __________ is somewhat more powerful than a microcomputer and can carry out the processing tasks for several people working at terminals that are connected to the minicomputer. Minicomputer
A ________ is an input and output device that resembles a microcomputer because it has a keyboard and screen. terminal
___________ are large, fast, and fairly expensive computers, generally used by business or government to provide centralized storage, processing and management for large amounts of data. Mainframes
_________ ________ are physical materials that provide long-term storage for computer data. Storage media
A ________ ______ can store billions of characters on a non-removable disk platter. Hard drive
A CD-ROM drive and a _____ drive are storage devices that use laser technology to read data from optical disks. DVD
A _________ ______ _______ is a storage device that writes data on floppy disks. floppy disc drive
Most of the computers used in people's homes are based on one of two major platforms--PCs and _____ Macs
Windows normally runs on the ____ platform. windows
Computers that operate in essentially the same way are said to be ________. compatible
A computer ________ is a collection of computers and other devices that have been connected in order to share data, hardware, and software. Network
The world's largest network, the __________, provides many information services, but the most popular is the World Wide Web, often referred to simply as the Web. internet
If you type the formula a1+b1/2 into a spreadsheet cell. What is the first mathematical operation that occurs? __________ Division
In a math equation, the computer will calculate whatever is in the parentheses first. It then processes _____________ next. exponents
In a spreadsheet, referring to a cell with an address such as $B$5 is called using a __________ address. absolute
In a spreadsheet, how would you reference the range of cells in column B including rows 3 through 11, using relative addressing? _______ B3:B11
Office ___________ systems include E-mail, word processing, voice mail, scheduling, databases, and more. automation
The means by which humans and computers communicate is referred to as the ______ ___________. user interface
A ________ is a message displayed by the computer that asks for input from the user. PROMPT
A __________ is an instruction you input to tell the computer to carry out a task. command
_________ specifies the sequence and punctuation for command words and parameters. syntax
COBOL is a __________ language. compiled
If you misspell a command word, leave out required punctuation, or type the command words out of order, you have made a __________ error and the computer will display an error message. syntax
An interface that requires the user to type commands is referred to as a ___________-_____. command line
Round option buttons sometimes called "________ buttons," allow you to select only one of the options. radio
Square ____________ allow you to select any or all of the options. checkboxes
The more dots your screen displays in the matrix, the higher its _________. resolution
Software for accessing the World Wide Web is called a ___________. browser
You can search for information on a specific topic using a __________ _________. search engine
___________ ____________ refers to the ability of computers to solve problems and perform tasks that were once thought to be uniquely human. AI (Artificial Intelligence)
An employee at IBM( would probably have the domain name ________ after the "at" symbol in his work e-mail address
____________ is normally thought of as a set of instructions for the computer and its associated data, which are stored in electronic format, that direct the computer to accomplish certain tasks Software
People who illegally copy, distribute, or modify software are often called __________. Pirates
Illegal copies of software are referred to as __________ software. Pirated
A __________ is a legal contract which defines the ways in which you may use the computer program. License
A _____ license allows the software to be used on all computers in one location. site
________ is "try before you buy" software. Shareware
__________ _________ software, or "freeware", is software that has been donated to the public, so it is not owned by the author. Public domain
Mail ________ is a feature supported by many word processors that enables you to generate form letters. Merge
There are two basic categories of software. ____________ software is a program designed for use by end-users. Applications
______________ software helps the user carry out a specific task. Application
A _________ bit is an extra bit of information added to every piece of data that is transmitted to make sure it is transmitted accurately Parity
An __________ __________ is essentially the controller of all activities that take place on your computer. Operating Systems
In addition to providing external services, an operating system will also provide _____________ services, which are "behind the scenes" and ensure that the computer is functioning properly. (managing hard drive,find errors in hardware,finding memory) Internal
Any part of a computer system that might be used by a computer program is called a ___________. Resource
___________ is the most popular operating system for personal computers today. Windows
_____________ is a service which allows you to work on several projects at a time. Multitasking
________ is an operating system that was developed in 1969 by AT&T's Bell Laboratories. UNIX
Before you can store data on a disk, the disk must be _________. Formatted
System software which helps the computer control a peripheral device, such as a printer or sound card, is called a device _________. Driver
A ____________ ___________ allows a programmer to create a program using english-like instructions. programming language
___________ provides a way for people to collaborate their efforts on a project. Groupware
____________ software makes calculations based on numbers and formulas the user enters. spreadsheets
A _______ text file stores information in a text file similar to how you would on index cards. flat
You can use _________ _________ software to control another computer remotely. Remote control
__________ ________ is a way to use your computer to transfer funds among accounts, download transactions directly from your bank, and pay bills, all via the Web. online banking
Many operating systems are downwardly ____________ which means that they can run programs meant for earlier versions. compatiable
New software you purchase will typically come with a ______ program that leads you through the installation process. setup
_____ stores its contents only as long as the computer is on. RAM
______ can be written to and erased by the computer. RAM
To increase the speed of data access, a computer might use a ________, which is a special area in computer memory that holds data that you are most likely going to use soon. Cache
The smallest unit of memory is 1 bit or byte
There are _______ different characters that can be stored in 1 byte of memory 256
A _______ is a named collection of data that exists on a storage medium such as a floppy disk, hard disk, or a CD. file
A unique set of letters and numbers that identifies a file is called a _________. filename
A filename might be followed by a _________ which normally describes the type of file. extension
A group of sectors is called a ________. cluster
An example of a _________ in Windows is the asterisk, which can be used to select files that have filenames that include the letter combinations that you type. wildcard
An __________ tells the computer how to perform a specific task. executable
A ______ _______ contains pictures, words, and numbers that you can view, save, print, edit, and send using executables made specifically for that task. Data file
________ is programmed once at the factory, and cannot be overwritten. It contains basic information for the system. ROM
A _____________ utility can rearrange the files on a disk so that they are stored in contiguous, or back to back sectors of the disk. defragmentation
Floppy disks, hard drives, cdrom drives, and dvd drives are random access devices, while tape drives are _________. Sequential
In Windows, a ________ _________ provides a way to refer to a particular storage device. Device letter
An operating system maintains a list of files called a __________ or folder for each CD-ROM, DVD or disk. Directory
The main directory of a drive is sometimes referred to as the ____ directory. Root
A file specification, more commonly known as the _______, consists of the drive, folder, filename, and extension that identifies a file. path
A ______ _________ is a program which helps you find, rename, move, copy, and delete files or folders. file manager
A _________ ___________ is the substance that contains data, which can be a disk, tape, CD, paper, or DVD. storage medium
A backup made on magnetic tape is called a _______ _________. type backup
Each 1 or 0 that represents data is called a ____. bit
Printers and scanners are examples of ___________ devices. Peripheral
Eight bits make a _____. byte
The minimum amount of memory that is required to store one character, or one letter, is 1 ________. byte
The storage technology used for tapes, floppy disks, and hard disks is ________ storage. magnetic
When files are stored in many noncontiguous (non back-to-back) clusters, they are said to be _________. fragmented
CD and DVD storage technologies are classified as ____________ storage. optical
The ________ utility can restore deleted files because they will not truly be deleted until you write something over them. undelete
When you store a file on a disk, the operating system records the cluster number that contains the beginning of the file in a table called a ___________. allocation
A _______ ______ contains minimal operating system files and is often used for troubleshooting or installing a new operating system. book disc
In Windows, the __________ contains the settings that the computer needs to correctly use its software and hardware devices Registry
Digital computers use the _________ number system, also called "base 2." Binary
_______ is the data representation code used on most mainframes and microcomputers Ascii
An area in the computer system unit that temporarily holds data before and after it is processed is called _____. RAM
A __________ translates a program written in a high-level language into object code, or low-level instructions that the operating system can understand. compiler
An ______________ is a set of steps for carrying out a task or solving a problem. The exact format of the algorithm depends on the programming language that will be used to write the program. Algorithm
In a program, values are stored in structures called ____________. Variables
Another way of expressing an algorithm, which looks more like a programming language than structured English, is known as ______________. Pseudocode
The computer normally reads a program from top to bottom. A program _________ statement modifies the order in which the computer executes the statements. controls
If you execute the program below, and enter in a value of 14 at the prompt, what value will be printed out? ______ 15
statements such as FOR, WHILE, and DO WHILE are ____________ control structures. Repetition
The ______ does a basic check for problems in the computer during bootup. POST (Power On Self Test)
Disk storage which is used to simulate Random Access Memory (RAM) is called _________ __________. Virtual memory
_______ cannot be overwritten and contains instructions that help a computer prepare processing tasks. ROM
The _____ memory holds data such as your computer system configuration but requires a small amount of electricity to retain it's data. This power is provided by a small battery on the motherboard CMOS
All computers need a ________ which takes place from the time you turn on the computer and the time it is ready for you to enter commands. Boot process
In a personal computer, the CPU (Central Processing Unit) is a single integrated circuit called a _________. Microprocessor
A Decision _________ System allows users to create data models of "what-if" scenarios, and provides the tools the decision maker needs to examine the data. Support
A Java program created for the internet is called an __________. Applet
The time to complete an instruction cycle is measured in millions of cycles, or _______. Mhz
_______ is a special high-speed memory that gives the CPU access to data very quickly. Cache
A _____ is a computer which is based on a central processing unit with a complex instruction set. CISC
______ machines use a microprocessor with a streamlined set of instructions CISC
When a computer has more than one processor, it can perform __________ processing, which uses more than one processor at a time to increase the amount of processing that a computer can accomplish in a certain amount of time. Parallel
___ stands for input/output and refers to collecting data for the microprocessor to process and transporting results to an output device, like your monitor, or putting it in a storage device like your hard drive. I/O, which stands for input/output
Groupware requires computers to be ____________ together. networked
___________ is where some Information System functions are hired out to a third party contractor. Outsourcing
A ___________ card connects to the monitor. graphics
A ______ card is for transmitting data over phone lines. Modem
An ___________ port is any connector that passes data in and out of a peripheral device or computer Expansion
A set of standard processing tasks that measure the performance of computer software or hardware is called a ___________ test. benchmark
Windows and DOS will copy the contents of the original disk into _________ and then copy the contents from _________ to the second disk. don't need 2 floppies memory
The first step in the software development cycle is to define the _________. problem
The size of a hard drive, today, is currently measured in ________, while it was once measured in megabytes or kilobytes gigabytes
An _________ system is also known as a knowledge-based system expert
In addition to access time, another measure of hard drive speed is ____, which is the measure of how fast a drive spins. Rpm
The _________ phase of the software development cycle involves making sure the program is consistently producing accurate and desired results. testing
High-performance workstations and servers will often use a ____ drive over an EIDE drive. SCSI
Computer _________ normally focuses on the design of computer hardware and peripheral devices. Engineering
Computer ________ normally focuses on making the computer work more efficiently and effectively. science
The highest Information Technology position in a company is the head of the IS department, the _____. CIO
Information _________ focuses mainly on the application of computers in an organizational or business environment. Systems
In a _______ type of interface, in addition to keyboard commands, you can also click on icons and menu choices. GUI
The instructions which are currently being executed are stored in _____. RAM
The maximum _________ of a monitor is the maximum number of pixels it can display. resolution
The _________ phase of the Software Development Life Cycle is when you would be most likely to first create flowcharts. design
A(n) _____ graphics card displays images more quickly than a normal graphics card. Accelerated
_______ memory stores images for the graphics card before they are displayed. Video
A document __________ can take a letter, or some other document you have, and convert it into a digital representation which it transmits to the computer. Scanner
A(n) _____ slot in a laptop uses _______ cards and is often used to add a modem or network card. PCMCIA
When a computer allows you to switch out devices while it is on, it is called ___ swap. HOT
A __________ __________ is the person who interviews people to determine the requirements of a program, and designs the program. Systems Analyst
The quality of sharpness depends on the ___ that the printer can print. Dpi
A(n) _____ test is a test which is done by the software publisher's test team. alpha
A(n) ______ test is a test which is done by a team of off-site testers. beta
Webmasters, programmers, and chip designers all depend on computers for the existence of their jobs. These jobs are called _________-__________ jobs. Computer-specific
A computer network which is restrained to a small area like a campus or building, is called a _____. lan
Within the same LAN, you can use different types of hardware, operating systems, and ________. cables
Networks which span a large area, like the entire world, are called _____'s. wan
A computer which is not connected to any kind of network is called a _______-______ computer. Stand-alone
When you connect your computer to a LAN (local area network), it becomes a ___________. Workstation
Your computer's physical resources are called ______ resources. local
The resources of the network which you have access to, such as a printer or other computer's hard drives, are called _______ resources. network
A network ________ is a computer which serves the other computers on the network. server
Each ____ is a device on the network. node
A network _______ is also known as a network supervisor and creates user accounts as well as manages the network Administrator
______ is the protocol used on the internet for transferring large files FTP (file transfer protocol)
Drive ________ is when you assign a drive letter to a network drive mapping
When multiple users use one copy of software running off of a server, it is called _________ a program. sharing
File _________ is a precaution which allows only one user to edit a data file. locking
The printer which you want the computer to print to when a printer is not specified is called the ________ printer default
A ____ is a small circuit board which allows the network to be possible by sending and receiving data NIC (network card)
The two most popular network types are Token Ring and _______. ethernet
_________ cable, which is sometimes referred to UTP or STP, has a RJ-45 connector on both ends. Twisted-pair
______ cable looks similar to a cable-TV cable and has a BNC connector on each end. coaxial
Sometimes you will not use cables in a network, but will instead use radio or infrared signals. These networks are called __________ networks. wireless
A network ____ connects workstations and broadcasts every packet to all of its ports. hub
A dedicated ____ server is dedicated to providing programs and data for workstations but does not process any data. file
A __________ file server acts as both a file server and workstation. Non-dedicated
A _____ server receives print requests from other computers and prints them on its printer. print
On a spreadsheet, the name assigned to a column OR a row is known as a _______. label
A print ______ is where the print jobs are held before they are printed. queue
An __________ server is a computer which runs one application and returns the processed results of requests to the appropriate workstation. application
A ____ computer has many terminals which lets many people use the same computer. Each terminal has a keyboard and a screen but they do not process any data and they do not have a local hard drive, but instead use the _____ computer's resources. host
Your microcomputer can simulate a terminal by using terminal ____________ software. Emulation
______-______ processing results in immediate updates(it processes the jobs as it gets them). real-time
composed of two parts: The Network ______ software which is installed on a file server, and the Network client software, which handles drive mapping, login information, and more. server
A ______ installation updates the Windows Registry and Start menu. It also copies some of the program files to your computer. This is used so that you can run the program off of the network server. workstation
The quality of a monitor or the image displayed on a monitor is measured by its ____________. resolution
A ______ license allows multiple users to use the software. It is often much cheaper than buying many single-user licenses network
________ software, which is also known as "document routing software," automatically takes a document from one person to the next after getting the necessary approval. workflow
E-mail is a _______-_____-_________ technology, since a server stores your messages and then forwards them to your workstation. Store-and-forward
The internet started with the _______, which was created in 1969, and connected computers at four universities. ARPANET
A computer on the internet that provides a service is known as an ___________ ______. internet host
____________ software lets your computer transmit and receive data using TCP/IP. Internet communications
The ideal password is a _________ alphanumeric arrangement. random
A ______ connects computers in one office or building lan
A ________ connects several offices scattered across the country wan (wide area network)
The protocol, or set of communications rules, which is most used on the Internet is ______. TCP/IP
An _________ service provider is a company that provides Internet access to individuals, organizations, and businesses. internet
An Applications ____________ is a person in a company who designs and creates programs to meet end-users needs. developer
A connection which uses a phone line to temporarily connect to the internet is called a ______-___ connection. dial up
The unique number which refers to every computer which is connected to the Internet is called an _____ _________. IP address is an example of an ______ ___________. IP address
Given the following address, which part specifies a port number: 80 -The number after the colon, '80', refers to a port number on the machine to use.
The port number on a computer for accessing FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is port _____. 21
The Internet backbone has many ________, which direct traffic by use of the IP address. routers
Sometimes referred to as a FQDN, most people refer to easy-to-remember names like as __________ names. domain
The _____-_______ domain of the domain name indicates whether it is a college, government agency, commercial business, non-profit organization, etc. top level
A web site is composed of many _________. web pages
Each and every web page on the Internet has a ____, which is an Internet address for web pages. URL
The acronym HTTP is short for _________ Transfer Protocol Hypertext
____ servers are not part of the Web but are part of the internet and are often used to store and transfer files. FTP
On a webpage, a _____, sometimes called a hypertext _____ allows you to go to other pages through them. link
________ is the process of taking a file from a remote computer and putting it on your computer's hard drive. downloading
When you are sending a file from your local computer to a remote computer, it is called ___________. uploading
A discussion group takes place ___________, which means that the participants in the conversation are not all online at the same time. It is similar to a bulletin board where everybody posts their comments and questions. Asynchronously
A record in a database or spreadsheet is made up of _________. fields
In a chat room, you can communicate ___________, meaning you are talking to people who are currently online at the same time. Synchronously
In an HTML document, there are HTML _______ which act as commands to the internet browser. tags
All information in a computer, whether it's video, sound, text, pictures, etc., is stored as a string of ______. bits
___________ speed is the maximum speed that a modem can communicate with the modems owned by your ISP. connection
The speed that your computer can send or receive data is called your __________ rate. transfer
The most common transfer protocols for use on a terminal or modem are X-modem, Y-modem, Z-modem, and Kermit. Which one of these is generally the fastest for file transfers? _________ Z modem
A mistake which is made by the computer user is called an ________ error operator
A power _______ is where your computer loses all power by no fault of your own. This is normally from a malfunction at your local power plant or a downed power line. failure
A copy of data is called a _______. backup
With a __________ backup, you make a full backup in regular intervals and then make a __________ backup with all data that has changed since the last full backup. differential
In a ________ ______ LAN network, the computers are connected to form a loop, and use a token to pass a message around the network. token ring
A battery which provides power during power failures or power outages and provides a steady flow of power in case you have a power surge or spike is called a _____. UPS
A computer component's reliability is measured by a statistic which is called a _____. MTBF
The _______ of a virus is what it wants to accomplish, or its true mission on your computer. payload
A _____ virus is a virus which attaches itself to a program like a game or application. file
A ______ propagates itself on a system, infecting files, but cannot spread to other computers without human intervention. virus
A ______ ________ virus infects the files your computer uses when it is turned on, or its system files. boot sector
A ______ virus attaches itself to a worksheet or document and spreads when the user opens the infected file. macro
A ________ _______ is a program which appears to do something of use to the user, while it is actually doing something else. trojan horse
A _______ is a program which enters a computer and then propagates itself throughout the Internet. They normally do not destroy data, but instead slow down the computer and take up hard drive space. worm
_________ software, sometimes called virus detection software such as McAfee VirusScan, can find and remove viruses. antivirus
A _________ diagram is used to show how data flows to and from processes in a system. data flow
A _________ is a number used to determine if any byte within a program has been changed. Checksum
A virus ___________ is a series of bytes which is unique for a certain virus. It acts as an identifier which Antivirus software can use. signature
There are three files on a disk, an ASCII text file, a word processor document, and a sound file. You can only delete one file, but you want to free up the most space possible. Which file should you delete to free up the most space? ________ sound
With an ___________ backup, you make a full backup at regular intervals, while using a separate tape to store the files that change each day after that. Incremental
Rules that limit what each user can do are called ______ _______. user rights
A special hole left by the programmer for emergency situations that can be used by a hacker to enter a system without having to hack each security precaution is called a _______ ______. trap door
___________ is used to scramble information, so that it cannot be understood unless it is properly deciphered or decrypted. Encryption
__________ _____ encryption uses two keys, one key which can encrypt the message, and one which can decrypt the message public key
Companies will often have a __________ which will help keep hackers and potentially hazardous programs from getting on your company computer. firewall
_______ stores information for a website so that it can "remember" you, when you come back. cookie
____________ refers to the time that a computer system is not available for use downtime
____________ refers to the time that a computer system is not available for use Redundant
One bit can give ____ different messages. 2
If you follow the rule which states that n bits can only contain 2n units of information, then 3 bits can only contain __ units of information. 8. 3 bits can carry 8 units of information (23 = 8)
The binary system is base ____. 2
ASCII is one of the most popular character representation codes and uses __ bits which allows it to have 128 total characters. 7
One of the most popular character representation codes, ANSI uses __ bits to represent 256 different characters. 8
__________ is a character representation code which uses 16 bits to represent 65536 characters unicode
Data ____________ is the process used to shrink files so that they take up less space. compression
______ ___________ compresses files into one smaller file. file compreesion
1 Kilobyte equals ______ bytes 1024
_________ is the amount of data that can be sent over a communications channel line in one second. bandwidth
Transmissions which send one bit after another are known as ___________ transmissions. serial
When transmitting data by _________ transmission, all the bits of a byte are sent at the same time. Parallel
The _________ of a network is the layout of the communication channels in a communications system topology
The _________ topology connects all computers directly to one device, usually a switch. star
The _______ topology hooks each computer up to its neighbors in a long chain. bus
The ________ topology hooks each computer to its neighbor and the last computer to the first, making a loop. ring
The _________ topology connects each computer to every other computer. mesh
One way of checking if a transmitted byte was sent accurately is by using a _______ bit, which has information on the number of 1 bits. parity
A _______ protocol transmits data at a fixed rate agreed by the sender and receiver Synchronous
An ____________ protocol transmits data with start and stop bits. Asynchronous
__________ communication lets you transmit but not receive, or vice versa simplex
______-________ communication lets you transmit and receive, but not at the same time half duplex
______-________ communication lets you send and receive at the same time. full duplex
An __________ system gathers, stores, and provides information to people information
A __________ is a website that offers a broad range of resources and services--i.e. most search engines nowadays also offer news, email, weather, sports updates, etc.. portal
An ____________ is a set of people who work together to accomplish a set goal. organization
A __________ statement tells what an organization hopes to achieve. mission
_________ is the use of computers or other machines to make certain processes more efficient. automation
____________ is to input, record, or process information in a computer or system of computers. Computerization
_________ __________ management keeps records of the employees employed in an organization along with their salaries, skills, etc Human resources
There are two types of information: _________ and internal. external
In a spreadsheet, the intersection of a row and a column is known as a ________. cell
____________ _________ tools help people find logical solutions to problems by letting them make a model of their problem. Information analysis
An organization which automates its day-to-day office tasks uses an __________ system Automation
A Cell _______ can consist of just one cell, or a combination of one or more rows and columns. range
An _________ is an internal network used by a company to provide its employees with access to information Intranet
A _________ support system helps employees make decisions for semi-structured problems decisions
A knowledge-based system, or ______ system, analyzes data and comes up with a decision. EXPERT
When developing expert system applications, it helps to have an expert system _____. shell
Using a method called _______ logic, an expert system can take unsure data, along with the percent of confidence in your unsure data and give you an answer along with its percentage of having given you a correct answer. fuzzy
________ networks simulate the brain and can learn, remember, and even process information. neutral
A ________ system stores items purchased and calculates the total cost for each sale. point of sale
Created by: melanie9354
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