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Mystery Of History

Quarter 1

Isaac Watts In 1707, published a large collection of spiritual hymns in England
Johann Sebastian Bach In 1708 claimed that his lifelong purpose was to create "well-regulated church music to the glory of God"
1708 When Johann Sebastian Bach claimed that his lifelong purpose was to create "well-regulated church music to the glory of God"
George Frideric Handel one of his greatest works is the famous oratorio The Messiah
Eisenach, Germany Place where Johann Sebastian Bach was born in 1685
Johann Christoph was also a gifted musician but reluctant to welcome his brothers into his home
cantor choir director
Leipzig Bach after leaving prison settled in this town and worked as a cantor (choir director) at a boarding school
Mass in B Minor Written by Bach (used the rise and fall of instruments and vocalists to choreograph the life of Christ as literally as possible)
Herz und Mund und Tat und Lenen German meaning "Heart and Mouth and deed and Life"
baroque A term defining musical works from about 1600 to 1750
polyphonic uses two or more voices or instruments at the same time to create layers of sound
homophonic uses only one or two voices or instruments in harmony with each other
"JJ" Jesu Juva Latin for "Jesus help"
"SDG" Soli Deo Gloria Latin for "To God alone the Glory"
Halle an der Saale, Germany place where George Frideric Handel was born in 1685
Water Music George Frideric Handel wrote this in 1717 for King George the 3rd to enjoy on a cruise down the River Thames
Music for the Royal Fireworks Handel wrote this in 1749 for a royal show of fireworks,the fireworks display provided to be a disaster when less than half the fireworks went off- and the rest exploded with the stage, but it is still enjoyed today for large public events and ceremonies
oratorio a musical piece with a religious theme
1742 Handel was invited in ____ to Dublin,Ireland to debut his latest oratorio for a charity event
The Messiah the oratorio preformed in 1742 in Dublin, Ireland
Thirteen Colonies of North America was founded in 173
1732 year the Thirteen Colonies of North America were founded
Virginia the 1st of the 13 colonies
1607 Captain John Smith settled Jamestown in this year
Captain John Smith settled Jamestown in 1607
Jamestown settled by Captain John Smith in 1607 was built on the coast of Virginia under the Virginia Company of London
Massachusetts the 2nd of the 13 colonies
Massachusetts Bay Colony people also called Massachusetts this
Pligrims get credit for Massachusetts founding in 1620 when they landed at Plymouth
1620 when they Pilgrims landed at Plymouth
Maine broke away from Massachusetts in 1820
New Hampshire the 3rd of the 13 colonies
1622 when New Hampshire started to take shape
Sir Fernando Gorges and Captain John Manson two merchants in England who received permission from King James the first to start fishing and timber colonies
New York the 4th colony of the 13 colonies
Dutch New York was settled by the _____
Peter Minuit solidified the founding of New York in 1626 when he bought Manhattan from the Native Americans for the equivalent of $24 worth of goods
1626 when Peter Minuit bought Manhattan
duke of York King Charles the 2nd of England eventually claimed Manhattan and named it New York in honor of his brother
Maryland the 5th colony of the 13 colonies
Baltimore, Maryland was named for George Calvert, the 1st Baron Baltimore
Leonard and Cecil Calvert George Calvert, the 1st Baron Baltimore's sons
1634 when the settlers first arrived in Maryland
Rhode Island the 6th of the 13 colonies, also the smallest
Roger Williams established Rhode Island in 1636
1636 when Roger Williams established Rhode Island
Anne Hetchinson sister-in-law to Roger Williams
Conneticut the 7th of the 13 colonies
Dutch settled Conneticut
Thomas Hooker moved to Connecticut to practice the separation of church and state
1636 year in which Thomas Hooker helped found Conneticut
Delaware the 8th of the 13 colonies
1638 the year the first permanent settlement in Delaware was established
Peter Minuit founded the first permanent settle in Delaware in 1638
Dutch and English Delaware switched into these hands every 10 years until it became independent in 1701
North Carolina the 9th of the 13 colonies
Virginia when Sir Walter Raleigh failed to colonize North Carolina nobody tried again until the colonists from ________ decided to venture a little farther south
1653 the colonists of Virginia started North Carolina in this year
New Jersey the 10th of the 13 colonies
Dutch settled in New Jersey in 1620
Lords Proprietor a special group of overseeres
1664 in this year the Lords Proprietor decided to offer generous grants and religious freedom to settlers of North America
Lord John Berkeley oversaw the west side of the country
Sir George Carteret oversaw the east side of the country
Isle of Jersey a tiny island in the England Channel
South Carolina the 11th of the 13 colonies
King Charles the 2nd offered South Carolina to 8 English nobles in return for helping him regain the throne that his father King Charles the st has lost
1670 150 settelers recruited by the Lords Proprietor landed on the coast of South Carolina and named their establishment Charles-Town
Pennsylvania the 12th of the 13 colonies
William Penn a devout Quaker who was granted the colony of Pennsylvania in 1681
1682 Penn laid out the city of "brotherly love" and welcomed people from all walks of life
Georgia the last of the 13 colonies
1732 the last of the 13 colonies was made official in this year
James Oglethorpe King George the 3rd granted Georgia to this person in 1732
Northern colonies Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Rhode Island
Middle colonies New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware
Southern colonies Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia
Great Awakening a spiritual revival from 1734 to 1760
1734-1760 the time of the Great Awakening
Johnathan Edwards and George Whitefield these two people largely influenced the Great Awakening
Sarah Johnathan Edwards's wife
John Wesley and Charles Wesley two brothers who influenced George Whitefield coming to Christ
7 Years War this war was sprawled over more than one continent,and the results are still felt today
French and Indian War This was part of the 7 Year War, and was the fourth war between France and Britain in 1754-1763, is called this because all except the Iroquois sided with the French
Brandenburg a small German state that adopted Prussia in 1618
Frederick the 2nd became king of Prussia in 1740
1740 time when Frederick the 2nd became king, also when Maria Theresa rose to the throne
Maria Theresa a duchess of Austria and empress of the Holy Roman Empire
Silesia a small region northeast of Austria that happened to boarder Prussia, and Frederick the 2nd fought two wars against Maria Theresa for
1756 Frederick the 2nd fought against Maria Theresa for the third time for Silesia in this year
Saxony a region south of Prussia
Voltaire Frederick the 2nd's best friend
Hanover a small German state
Great Britain joined Frederick the 2nd side
India and Spain both decided to join Maria Theresa
1763 the year peace was secured with Austria
Napoleon Bonaparte a powerful ruler
Marie Antoinette a vainglorious woman
Enlightenment a movement of the eighteenth century when philosophers looked to "human reason" instead of God to better understand mankind
Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau two leaders in the Enlightenment
deist someone who believes that God created the universe, abandoned it, and is waiting to return for the Last Judjement
Jean Calas was accused of murdering his son for practicing Catholicism
Parlement court
Gottfried Leibnitz Voltaire used the book Candide to make fun of this philosopher who claimed "all was for the good"
1750 the year Voltaire moved to Purussia
1762 the year Rousseau wrote The Social Contract
Benjamin Franklin went from candle maker, to ambassador, to founding farther of the United States of America
Boston, Massachusetts place where Benjamin Franklin was born in 1706
Deborah Read 1723 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania her father took young Benjamin Franklin in as a boarder and in 1730 she became his common-law wife
1752 in this year Benjamin Franklin and his son William flew a kite in a thunderstorm with a key attached to the string to prove that lightning was made of electricity
Albany Congress a gathering in Albany, New York that was designed to persuade the Iroquois to side with the colonists and the British in the French and Indian War, Benjamin Franklin joined in June of 1754
King William's War the first war between France and Britain in 1689-1697
Queen Anne's War the second war between France and Britain in 1702-1713
King George's War the third war between France and Britain in 1744-1748
Iroquois the only Indians who sided with the British in the French and Indian War
Fort Niagara built by the French near the Niagara falls
Fort Detroit a fort built by the French and is where Detroit Michigan is today
Fort Duquesne a fort built by the French at the mouth of the Ohio River and in a area that the British claimed was theirs
Ohio River this river starts in present day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania till it spills into the Mississippi River, and the valley surrounding it were critical to the French for connecting the Great Lakes region to the Mississippi river for trade
1754 when George Washington at age 22 went to the Ohio Valley and led an ambush against a French patrol, killing 10 French soldiers, and capturing 21
Fort Necessity a fort built by George Washington in the Ohio Valley to mark his victory
Acadians Frenchmen who had previously settled Acadia who the British planed to expel from Canada
New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island in present day Acadia is this, a part of Main
Nova Scotia Acadia was renamed this in 1713 which means "New Scottland"
Cajuns a distinct ethnic group found in Louisiana today
Evangeline: A Tale of Acadie written by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow to commemorate the pitiful treatment of the French Acadians
Battle of the Monongahela fought near Fort Duquesne
scalping men, and killing or capturing women and children the British wore bright-red coats, marched in straight lines, and broadcast their arrival with music, while the Indians who sided with the French hid behind trees to ambush them and also invade the colonial homes of innocent families, to do this to them
William Pitt a statesman of Great Britain that directed Britain in the French and Indian war, who stayed in Britain during the was
Pittsburg Fort Duquesne was renamed by the British to this in honor of General William Pitt
Quebec and Montreal French living cities
Battle of the Plains of Abraham named for a framer's field, the generals of the British and French armies were both killed, and in the end Quebec fell to the British, as did Montreal in 1760
Treaty of Fortaiebleau a secret treaty in 1762 France quietly gave Spain a vast territory of land west of the Mississippi all the way to the rocky mountains
Louisiana Territory the land given to Spain in the Treaty of Fortaiebleau
Treaty of Paris this treaty was signed in 1763 and officially ended the French and Indian War and awarded Great Britain the eastern portion of Canada, and all land east of the Mississippi
Pontiac rallied other Native Americans to rebel against the Treaty of Paris, which had left the "re-carving" of north america by Europeans but after 3 years of bloody fighting failed
Catherine the Great This German-born princess donned a Russian military outfit, saddled a horse from the Russian army, and led 14,000 troops to successfully overthrow her husband, Peter III, king of Russia
Elizaveta Petrovna when Catherine was a young girl in Germany, Russia was under this ruler
Peter the Great Elizaveta Petrovna was his daughter
Peter Catherine married Elizaveta Petrovna's nephew named this in honor of her father, and at age 17 became grand duke (Catherine age 16 became grand dutchess)
Peter the 3rd in 1761 Peter became the king of Russia and this was his new title
Winter Palace Peter the 3rd and Catherine move to this palace in St Petersburg to be the new king and queen of Russia
1762 the year in which Catherine was crowned Empress Catherine the 2nd of Russia, at the Kremlin in Moscow
Diderot inspired by learning, Catherine invited this French scholar to Russia to finish working on his famous Encyclopedie
Hermitage Catherine built this as a retreat site at the Winter Palace in St Petersburg and the transformed it into one of Europe's finest art museums with works by Raphael, Rembrandt, and others
Ukraine Catherine pushed back the Turks to gain this and access to the Black Sea
Emelian Pugacachev claiming to be Peter the 3rd he enlisted thousands of poor Russians in an act of class warfare against the rich
Don Cossacks runaway pheasants who banded together to fight for freedom
Radishchev Catherine exiled this popular author to Siberia for promoting revolutionary ideas
King George the 3rd in 1763 after the British defeated the French, he took the throne of England, and was only 22
1765 in this year when the British passed a law requiring the colonies to pay taxes on legal papers such as marriage licenses, college diplomas, and newspapers
stamp act the law requiring the collection of taxes on legal papers
townshend act passed in 1767 this act put taxes on glass, lead, paints, paper and tea imported into the colonies.
Boston massacre a riot in Boston in March 5, 1770 arising from the resentment of Boston colonists toward British troops quartered in the city, in which the troops fired on the mob and killed several persons
Boston Tea Party a raid on 3 British ships in Boston Harbor on December 16, 1773 in which the colonists, disguised as Indians, threw the contents of 7000 chests of tea into the harbor as a protest against British taxes on tea
John Hancock was a signer of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and a governor of Massachusetts, this native was raised by his uncle, a wealthy Boston merchant
Samuel Adams was an American statesman, political philosopher, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, and founded the Sons of Liberty
Sons of Liberty was an organization that was created in the 13 American Colonies.,the secret society was formed to protect the rights of the colonists and to fight taxation by the British government, and played a major role in most colonies in battling the Stamp Act
1774 the year the Intolerable Acts passed
Intolerable Acts were harsh laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774, they were meant to punish the American colonists for the Boston Tea Party and other protests
First Continental Congress On September 5, 1774, delegates from each of the 13 colonies except for Georgia met in Philadelphia as this to organize colonial resistance to Parliament's Coercive Acts
Patrick Henry was an American attorney, planter and statesman who became known as an orator during the movement for independence in Virginia as a Founding Father, said give me liberty or give me death
Concord where the British troops discovered the colonists were stating gunpowder
General Thomas Gage was a British Army officer best known for his many years of service in North America, including his role as military commander in the early days of the American Revolution.
Lexington Where Hancock and Adams were at the time of the Boston Tea Party
Dr. Joseph Warren was a Son of Liberty, and an American physician who played a leading role in American Patriot organizations in Boston in the early days of the American Revolution, eventually serving as President of the revolutionary Massachusetts Provincial Congress.
William Dawes, and Paul Revere as the British departed, these Boston Patriots set out on horseback from the city to warn Adams and Hancock and rouse the Minutemen
Lexington, Concord the War for Independence carried on from here to here
Second Continental Congress in May 10, 1775 the representatives of the colonies met in Philadelphia for this
Benjamin Franklin returned from England and attended the Second Continental Congress
Thomas Jefferson was given the task of drafting a "declaration of independance"
Bunker Hill and Breed's Hill on a small peninsula north of Boston are these 2 hills
General William Howe led the British troops on July 17
General Israel Putnam, and General William Prescott led and inspired the colonial troops on July 17
Richard Mountgomery, and Benedict Arnold led militiamen to take Quebec, Canada but failed
Thomas Paine in 1776 he published the Common Sense
Common Sense spelled out on paper exactly what was at stake
Declaration of Independence as the formal statement written by Thomas Jefferson declaring the freedom of the thirteen American colonies from Great Britain
John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Robert Livingston, Roger Sherman, and Thomas Jefferson signed the Declaration of Independence
July 4, 1776 the day the Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Continental Congress
Liberty Bell a bell in Philadelphia first rung on July 8, 1776, to celebrate the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence
General George Washington At the time of the signing of the Declaration of Independence was in New York
December 1776 Washington and his men had retreated to the Delaware River
Delaware River the S-shaped river that borders Pennsylvania and New Jersey
Trenton the place where Washington attacked the Germans in New Jersey
Battle of Trenton this battle was fought in the place where Washington attacked the Germans in New Jersey, and won with only 2 dead and 5 wounded and Germany had 22 dead 83 wounded and 900 captured
Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis a new British officer whom Washington defeated
Flag Act this law definde the design of the flag of the United States
Betsy Ross made the first flag of the United States
Jane McCrea was innocently caught while en route to see her fiance she was scalped by Indians under the British commander John Burgoyne
John Burgoyne Jane McCrea was scalped by Indians under the direction of this British commander
Saratoga New York this is where the main battle to revenge Jane McCrea's death was fought
Valley Forge the place where Washington and his troops rested during the winter
Treaty of Alliance the French signed this treaty and fought with the Americans against the British
South when the British invaded Savanna, Georgia they spread the war
Major John Andre British commander whom Benedict Arnold sneaked military plans to
Benedict Arnold sneaked military plans to British commander Major John Andre
Tarrytown, New York Major John Andre was walking through this town in civilian clothes when he was jumped by colonial scouts looking for money insisted he stripped and they found the documents and later hanged him ( Benedict Arnold escaped to the British side)
York, Pennsylvania when Philadelphia was initially invaded by the British, the delegates of the Congress fled and regrouped here
Articles of Confederation the first draft of a constitution for the United States of America
General Nathaniel Greene a new commander for the southern states, was handpicked by Washington, and outsmarted the British Lieutenant General Cornwallis
Battle of Yorktown this battle lasted September 28 - October 19 1781, and defeated the British Lieutenant General Cornwallis
(2nd) Treaty of Paris was signed in Hotel d' York on September 3, 1783
September 3, 1783 the date the (2nd) Treaty of Paris was signed on
Hotel d' York the hotel the (2nd) Treaty of Paris was signed in
Mount Vernon Washington's Virginia estate and plantation
Constitutional Convention 55 delegated gathered together in Philadelphia to solve the problems of the Articles of Confederation it started on May 14, and lasted 4 months
Montesquieu a French political thinker of the Enlightenment originated the idea of the 3- pronged federal government
Senate where each state is equally represented by 2 Senators
House of Representatives where each state elects Representatives based n the number of population of the state
Farewell Address Washington wrote this to the American people stressing the importance of religion and morality before he ended his term
Bill of Rights the 10 amendments added to the Constitution
James Madison helped construct the Bill of Rights
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart while the events of the American Revolution were unfolding in Europe this child prodigy was preforming in front of courts and crowds on the harpsichord, the clavichord, and the violin
Leopold Mozart Wolfgang's father was a composer, violin teacher, and assistant concertmaster at the Salzburg court
Maria Anna Wolfgang's sister (nicknamed Nannerl) mastered the harpsichord by age 8
Nannerl Maria Anna nickname
1781 when Wolfgang moved to Vienna and fell in love with Constanze Weber
Constanze Weber married Wolfgang
Antonio Salieri Wolfgang's rival composer was often portrayed in movies and plays as Wolfgang's murderer but there is no evidence that he did kill Wolfgang
French Revolution the revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799
Marie Antoinette queen of France 1774–1793, wife of Louis XVI, and was executed in the French Revolution
Maximilien Robespierre French lawyer and revolutionary leader
1789 in May of this year the French Revolution started
King Louis XVI king of France from 1774 to 1792, his failure to grant reforms led to the French Revolution; he and his queen (Marie Antoinette) were guillotined
Estates General a French meeting
first estate church officials, exempt from paying taxes
second estate kings, queens, lords, and wealthy landowners, had to pay only a little tax
third estate businessmen, merchants, peasants, and serfs
bourgeoisie the middle class is also called this
National Assembly the body constituted by the French Third Estate in June 1789 after the calling of the Estates General. It was dissolved in Sept 1791 to be replaced by the new Legislative Assembly
"stormed the Bastille" occurred in Paris, France, on the afternoon of 14 July 1789 this prison contained just seven inmates at the time, but was a symbol of abuses by the monarchy, its fall was the start of the French Revolution
Palace of Versailles is a royal château in Versailles, France is now open as a museum, and a very popular tourist attraction
Petit Trianon built between 1762 and 1768 during the reign of Louis XV, is a small château located on the grounds of the Palace of Versailles in Versailles, France
National Convention the legislature of France 1792–95
Jacobins a member of a radical society of revolutionaries that promoted the Reign of Terror and other extreme measures
Cult of the Supreme Being was a form of deism established in France by Maximilien Robespierre during the French Revolution
Committee of Public Safety created in April 1793 by the National Convention, and formed during the Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror a period of the French Revolution, from about March, 1793, to July, 1794, during which many persons were ruthlessly executed by the ruling faction
Directory the body of five directors forming the executive power of France from 1795 to 1799
Napoleon Bonaparte a French general, political leader, and emperor of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, he rose swiftly through the ranks of army and government during and after the French Revolution and crowned himself emperor of France in 1804
1799 when the French Revolution ended
Corsica the place where Napoleon was born in 1769
First Consul Napoleon was voted to replace the Directory and a few months later he declared himself this
Imperial Guard Napoleon's private army
Battle of Austerlitz Napoleon's greatest victory was fought in 1805 in Moravia and was called this
Josephine Napoleon's first wife, a mother of 2, was 6 years older than Napoleon, and Napoleon wrote to her everyday from the battlefield but she never replied
Marie Louise of Austria Napoleon's second wife, she provided him a male heir
Battle of Trafalgar in this battle in 1805 Napoleon failed to take the British
Battle of Waterloo this battle was the fall of Napoleon
1803 the year the Louisiana Purchase took place
Louisiana purchase in 1803 the United States purchased from France the huge Louisiana Territory
Meriwether Lewis, William Clark, and Zebulon Pike these 3 people explored the Louisiana Territory, and the lands beyond it, shortly after it was purchased at q bargain price
New Orleans the port city that lies exactly where the Mississippi spills into the Gulf of Mexico
Missouri River, Columbia River, and Organ Territory Meriwether Lewis, and William Clark planned to follow this river in the Louisiana purchase and this river found here to reach the Pacific Ocean
1804 on May 14 of this year the 8,000 mile round-trip trip journey began in St. Louis, Missouri
Sioux and Mandan Louis and Clark meet with these 2 Indian tribes during their expedition
Toussaint Charbonneau a French-Canadian trader who Lewis and Clark meet in a Mandan village
Sacagawea a teenage Shoshone Indian mother, that joined the expedition, and translated between other Native Americans and Lewis and Clark, with her son on her back
Jean Baptiste Sacajawea's infant son
Fort Clatsop a fort built by Lewis and Clark on the coast and where they spent the winter months
Blackfeet Indians Lewis encountered this tribe of Indians who weren't friendly
Crow Clark encountered these warriors who stole some of their horses
1806 Zebulon Pike commissioned by Thomas Jefferson to go exploring
Pikes Peak this mountain was named after Zebulon Pike
Daniel Boone, and Davy Crockett these pioneers blazed new trails and opened the western frontier
Industrial Revolution on the heels of the expansion, this exploded in Europe and the United States, making everyone and everything "move" at a faster pace
William Wilberforce an Englishman who dedicated his career and his final years in retirement to abolishing salvery
Hull, England where William was born to a wealthy family in 1759
Isaac Milner a strong christian, led William to study the bible
John Newton a minister in London known for speaking out against slavery
William Pitt the Younger became the prime minister of England, William was great friends with him
Clapham Sect a group of highly influential Christian friends who gathered together regularly for prayer and fellowship
1807 this is the year during the winter Wilberforce with his team sneaked a bill into session that focused on stopping British ships from providing the French colonies with slaves
Abolition of the Slave Trade Act the bill that prevented the British from providing slaves to the French colonies
African Institution created by Wilberforce to try to heal the wounds inflicted on Africans
Emancipation Act freed all slaves of the British Empire
Ludwig Van Beethoven this composer was gifted with the finest ear for music, but suffered form deafness, he was talented, touchy, ambitious, bossy, artistic, depressed, accomplished, and messy
Bonn Germany the place where Ludwig Van Beethoven was born in 1770
Ninth Symphony the last symphony Beethoven would ever hear, and has remained the most famous
Third Symphony was originally written in honor of Napoleon Bonaparte, but when he began to show himself as a tyrant; Beethoven erased his name from the work
Beethoven's Fifth probably the most familiar of Beethoven's symphonies, premiered in 1808
1808 when Beethoven's Fifth premired
Mexico from 1521- 1821 was part of New Spain
New Spain was named by the Spanish who conquered the Aztec Empire in 1521 and settled parts of North, Central, and South America
Miguel Hidalgo a priest who became a hero for dying for the cause of Mexico's freedom
Nahua, Maya (Yucatec), Zapotec, Mixtec, and Otomi these were who Christopher Columbus called the Indians
Royalty Spanish born in Spain
Criollos Spainsh born in Mexico
Indians, and Mestizos blend of Indian and Spanish born in Mexico
San Diego Corralejo where Miguel Hidalgo was born
Dolores on September 15 Miguel Hidalgo's friends came to this town to warn him that authorities were coming to arrest him
Grita De Dolores Hidalgo summoned pheasants, farmers, Indians, and Mestizoes to arm themselves with axes, clubs, and machetes in this famous speech
1810 the start of the Mexican War of Independance
Guanajuato and Guadalajara claimed by Indians and Mestizos in 1810
Jose Maria Morelos another priest who filled the shoes of Hidalgo when he died
Acapulco Morelos and a small army took this city in 1813
Agustin de Inturbide a royalist assigned to end the revolutionaries, but sided with them
1821 when Inturbide ended the Mexican War of Independence and led Mexico to freedom
Treaty of Cordoba the signing of this led Mexico to freedom from Spain and its royal lineage
Mexican Empire, New Mexico Inturbide declared himself empire of this, and making here his capital
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna ousted Inturbide
1844 Santa Anna's aggressive leadership instead of becoming a Empire Mexico became a republic in this year
Alamo Santa Anna became famous for defeating the Texans here
Dolores Hidalgo Dolores was renamed this in honor of Father Hidalgo
War of 1812 this war failed to solve the issues that started it, and both sides claimed victory
Star-Spangled Banner this became the most famous by-products of the War of 1812
Battle of Trafalgar a battle in 1805 where Napoleon last his warships
President James Madison declared war on Great Britain in June 18, 1812, because of the attack on the American ship the Chesapeake
June 18, 1812 when the War of 1812 began
James Lawrence captain of the Chesapeake, who famously said "Don't give up the ship!" before he died
Battle of Lundy's Lane this battle took place in Canada and was fought on July 25, 1814 between the British army of General Sir Gordon Drummond and the American army of Major General Jacob S. Brown
Chief Tecumseh a Shawnee Native American who gave aid to the British in the War of 1812
Battle of Tippeconoe in this battle Tecumseh's brother lost to William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison a young American governor who won the Battle of Tippeconoe
Battle of the Thames in this battle Tecumseh led 6,000 Indians alongside British troops to fight against William Henry Harrison who defeated Tecumseh's brother in the Battle of Tippeconoe
Battle of Bladensburg in this battle in 1814 the British marched on Washington D.C. and set the Capital and the White House on fire
Dolley Madison she (the wife of the president) has just finnished setting the table when the British arrived, and fled while the British ate the president's dinner
Fort HcHenry was fired upon in the Battle of Baltimore during the night
Battle of Baltimore during this battle Fort HcHenry was fired upon during the night
Francis Scott Key a American lawyer in one of the British warships wrote the Star-Spangled Banner during the Battle of Baltimore
Treaty of Ghent signed by Great Britain and the United States to end the 2 1/2 year war on December 24, 1814
December 24, 1814 the day the War of 1812 ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent
Battle of New Orleans the news of the Treaty didn't reach the 8-9,000 soldier army who attacked the US on January 8, 1815, which resulted in this battle
General Andrew Jackson commanded the U.S. forces in the Battle of New Orleans
Jean Lafitte a notorious French pirate who was offered a pardon from his many crimes if he helped Jackson navigate through the swamps and inlets of Louisiana which he accepted
Moscow the captial city of Russia that Napoleon set his sights on in 1812
Battle of The Nations this battle took place in Leipzig in the fall of 1813 where Napoleon fought against half the world
Louis XVIII he was voted by the French Senate to be put on the throne of France in 1814
Elba Napoleon was exiled from France to this rocky island in 1814
Marshal Michel Ney was sent by Louis XVIII to stop the invasion of Napoleon but having served him he bowed and declared him his emperor
Congress of Vienna this meeting of many nations planned to stop Napoleon once and for all in attacks in June and July 1815
June 18,1815 the day the Battle of Waterloo began and ended the same day
Battle of Waterloo began and ended on June 18,1815 in Belgium, and was the fall of Napoleon
Duke of Wellington led the British in the Battle of Waterloo
Gebhard Van Blucher commanded the Prussian soldiers and joined the British in the Battle of Waterloo that afternoon
Saint Helena after the Battle of Waterloo Napoleon was kept prisoner here till he died in 1821 at the age of 51
Simon Bolivar liberated Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, and Venezulea from Spain
Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, and Venezulea were liberated from Spain by Simon Bolivar
Simon Bolivar liberated Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela form Spain
Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela was liberated from Spain by Simon Bolivar
Latain America refers to Mexico, Central America, and South America
Amazon River and the great Andes South America is the fourth largest continent and home to this river and this great mountain range
Portugal had a broad possession of South America
Paraguay a small country in the corner of South America that gained its freedom in 1811
Argentina the long leg of South America that declared its independence in 1816
Carcas, Venezuela the city where Simon Bolivar was born in located on the tropical Caribbean coast of South America
Angel Falls the highest waterfall in the world
April 19, 1810 was the beginning of the fight for Venezulea independence
"patriots" the Venezuelans who wished to fight Spain were called this
"royalists" the Venezuelans who did not wish to fight Spain were called this
New Granada ( is present-day Columbia) the place where Simon Bolivar and others fled after the earthquake
Battle of Thaguanes in this battle Simon Bolivar invaded his hometown to claim Caracas for the patriots, and involved a brutal massacre of the Spanish, and won
El Liberator means "the Liberator"
Jamaica Simon Bolivar fled to this island in the middle of the Caribbean Sea
Haiti this small brave nation responded to Simon Bolivar plea for assistance
Casanare to approach the Andes Simon Bolivar and his army of 2400 needed to cross the flooded planes of here
Boyaca this is the place in New Granada where the patriots overcame the royalists and blocked one of their most strategic bridges
1820 the year in which Simon Bolivar was made president of the "Republic of Columbia"
Republic of Columbia Simon Bolivar was made president of here in 1820
Gran Columbia Republic of Columbia was a formal name for this newly created state
Carabobo, and Bombana this was fought in 1821, and this war in 1822
Jose de San Martain the liberator of Chile and Argentina
Junin the final battle for independence for Peru was fought in the marshy plains here
Greek War of Independence this is when the Greeks rediscovered the ideas of freedom and democracy
Ottoman Turks ruled over the Greeks for four centuries
Constantinople named for Costantine I, was the only Christian city that stood in the Byzantine Empire
Istanbul when the Byzantine Empire took control of Constantinople they eventually renamed it
Selim I he was also known as "Selim the Grim" for his tough and intolerant nature
Greek Orthodox Church this church held fast where it could to maintain the Christian faith
Janissaries an elite corps of Turkish soldiers
Filiki Etria "Association of Friends"
Russian Orthodox Church had its own army, but it had tremendous political power, and was believed to be the vessel to free the Greek Orthodox Church from the Ottoman Turks
Alexander Ypsilanti in 1821 he was the leader of the Filiki Etria and was a talented military man who was born in Greece and grew up in Russia
1821 on May 25 of this year, Greek rebels and peasants in the Peloponnese, along with neighboring Albanians and Macedonians, rose up to fight against the Turks
Albanians and Macedonians on May 25, 1821, Greek rebels and peasants in the Peloponnese, along with neighbors rose up to fight against the Turks
Laskarina Bouboulina a lady sea captain, twice widowed, she was the only female member of the Filiki Etria
Georgios Karaiskakis gave his life in battle as a leader of the Armatoloi
Armatoloi a Christian militia that turned against the Turks
Theodoros Kolokotronis a older leader of the Klephts
Klephts a group of fighting Greek bandits notorious for stealing
Monemvasia this small town of Muslims were staved into surrendering and then slaughtered
Chios the Turks launched a full-scale assault in 1822 against this small but prosperous Greek island
Massacre of Chios about 100,000 Greeks were slain, burned, tortured, or captured by the Turks it was called this
Percy Shelley and Lord Byron during the age of Romanticism, these famous poets of England, wrote specifically about the quandary of the Greeks
Ibrahim Pasha in 1825 under his direction (the son of the sultan of Egypt), Egyptian forces stormed the Peloponnese
Battle of Navarino at this battle the allies of Greece were more than victorious, they destroyed 75/89 Egyptian-Turkish vessels without losing a sing one of theirs
Demetrios Ypsilanti had the honor of ending the Greek War of Independence that his brother Alexander started
1829 this is the year that Demetrios and his army, conquered the final Muslim army
Battle of Petra Demetrios and his army, conquered the final Muslim army in 1829 at this battle
Crypha Scholia "secret schools"
kleptomaniac refers to someone with a propensity to steal
Eleftheria i Thanatos "Liberty or Death"
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