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BUSH 21.1

Progressive Reforms

political machines powerful organizations linked to political parties that controlled local government in many cities
political boss (party boss) member of a political machine that controlled jobs and services in their political district
kickback arrangement in which contractors padded the amount of their bill for city work and paid a percentage of that amount to the bosses
William "Boss" Tweed leader of the New York City political machine in the 1960s and 1870s.
patronage (spoils system) government jobs or favors are given out to political allies or friends
civil service non-elected government workers
trusts a combination of corporations formed by a legal agreement to reduce competition
Eugene V. Debs founder of the American Socialist Party
muckrakers journalists that brought attention to the corruption and injustice in society
Ida Tarbell muckraker who wrote about Standard Oil
Upton Sinclair muckraker who wrote The Jungle exposing the unsanitary conditions and corruption of the meatpacking industry
primary an election in which a party's members pick their candidate
initiative allows citizens to place an issue on a ballot in a state election
referendum allows voters to accept or reject measures passed by a state legislature
recall allows citizens to remove an elected official from office before their term is complete
Created by: mmatulevicz