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Ch. 5

Looking to the West

3 reasons American's went West American imagination, profit, and conquest
Push-pull factor Events that either force or strongly attract a person west.
Push Factors 1. The Civil War displaced thousands. 2. Eastern farmland was very costly. 3. Ethnic and religious reasons. 4. Open land helped protect outlaws.
Pull Factors 1. Government incentives- gave away public lands or sold them cheap. 2. Private property- legally enforceable, transferable property rights. 3. Deeds to land were given.
Pacific Railway Acts (1862 and 1864) Government gave land grants to the Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads.
Transcontinental Railroad railroad line that linked the East (Atlantic Ocean) and the West (Pacific Ocean)
Changes the railroad brought 1. Cleared land of buffalo 2. Pushed Indians onto reservations 3. Towns were born near railroad 4. Time zones 5. Synchronized clocks 6. Increased population 7. New products could travel across the country.
Morrill Land Grant Act (1862) The federal government gave state government's millions of acres of land. States could then sell the land to raise money for "land grant" colleges.
Homestead Act (1862) Signed by Abraham Lincoln- for a small fee ($10) settlers could have 160 acres. By meeting the conditions required a person could claim ownership of the land.
Conditions of the Homestead Act 1. 21 years old or head of the family. 2. American citizen or immigrant filing for citizenship. 3. Build home and live in it at least 6 months a year. 4. Must farm land 5 years in a row.
Challenges of Farmers in Great Plains 1. Blizzards and frigid winters 2. Flooding and tornadoes 3. Drought, dust storms, and prairie fires 4. Grasshoppers devouring crops 5. Loneliness 6. Plowing the hard, dry prairie land
Speculators People who bought land in hopes of reselling to make a profit.
Exodusters Southern blacks, led by Benjamin "Pap" Singleton, who after The Civil War rode or even walked West.
Boomers Homesteaders who legally raced into Oklahoma Territory to stake claims on the land.
Sooners People who illegally staked a claim on land in the Oklahoma Territory by claiming land "too soon".
Bimetallism Gold and silver coins minted by the government. Government created a standard scale 16 to 1, meaning there was 16 times more silver in a dollar than gold.
Populist Party Also known as the "Peoples Party", formed by farmers. Founded by James Weaver and Tom Watson.Buffal Key issue was concerning the money supply. Favored inflation.
William Jennings Bryan Democrat Presidential nominee in 1896. Delivered "Cross of Gold speech.
Oliver Kelly Founded the farmers 1st organization (1867) called the Grange and initiated a co-op.
Buffalo Soldiers Members of the U.S. 10th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army, formed on September 21, 1866, at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. This nickname was given to the "Negro Cavalry" by the Native American tribes they fought in the Indian Wars.
Assimilation Bring into the main culture.
Frederick Jackson Turner Historian who wrote the Turner Thesis, 1893, which claimed the frontier had played a key role in forming the American character.
Grange Farmers first organization.
Long Drive Three month long overland transport of cattle.
Bonanza Farm Large, single crop farms
Interstate Commerce Act (1887) Law granting Congress authority to regulate railroad activities.
Laissez Faire Economic system where government does not interfere with business.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890) Congress promised to buy silver each year and to begin minting coins again. Repealed in 1893.
Reservation Land set aside by the government for Native Americans.
Omaha Platform 1. unlimited coinage of silver at a ratio of 16 to 1 2. Increase circulation of money 3. Progressive income tax 4. Direct election of senators 5. Government ownership of RR's, telephone and telegraph companies 6. Restriction of undesirable immigration 7.
Chief Joseph Leader of the Nez Perce.
Cheyenne (Sand Creek Massacre) Indian tribe who were encamped when soldiers attacked and killed between 150-500. Agreed to move to reservations.
Lakota Sioux (Wounded Knee) Indians who began practicing "Ghost Dance", perceived by Americans as restlessness. Leader Sitting Bull was killed.
William McKinley
Created by: GCUSHistory