Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards
share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Processing

QuestionAnswer
take out water dehydrating
replace alcohol w/a reagent miscible w/parafin clearing
impregnation, permeation infiltration
infiltration w/a supporting medium embedding
chem reagent that can be used for dehydrating and clearing steps in tissue processor. universal solvent
volatile oils have odor of plant from which they are made essential oil
water soluble (polyethylene glycols) carbowax
substance that changes one ion for another. used in decalcification and exchange an ammonium ion for the calcium ion removed from tissue ion exchange
absorbs water from air so use it over a drying chemical like drierite or an anhydrous calcium chloriee acetone
removing calcium from bone decalcification
must be mixable with both dehydrating agent and infiltration medium clearing agents
organic compounds that have property of binding certain metals, chelating agent
capable of mixing or being mixed miscible
alcohol, dioxane, acetone, tetrahydrofuran dehydrating agents
xylene, toluene, benzene, acetone, chloroform, cedarwood oil, tetrhydrofuran, dioxane, limonene derivatives, aliphatic hydrocarbons clearing agents
infiltration medium paraffin
dealcoholization agents clearing agents
inadequate clearing inadequate infiltration
soft, mushy tissue inadequate clearing, inadequate infiltration results in
hard, brittle tissue prolonged period in clearing agent
most widely used clearing agent, used in processing and staining xylene
prolonged treatment w/xylene during processing tissue becomes overhardened
rapid in displacing alcohol, mixiable w/paraffin xylene
turns cloudy in presence of water xylene
has PEL of 100ppm, use w/adequate ventilation xylene
doesnt overharden as much as xylene toluene
best aromatic clearing agent toluene
fast acting, doesnt overharden like xylene benzene
hardens muscle,tendon and uterus more than toluene benzene
evaporates rapidly from paraffin bath benzene
when using this clearing agent, the paraffin used for infiltration does not require rotaion and changing as frequently as w/o clearing agents benzene
carcinoge, affects blood and bone marrow benzene
leaves tissue less brittle than xylene chloroform
penetrates slowly, makes clearing a longer process chloroform
use in tightly covered containers chloroform
desiccates (dries) connective tissue chloroform
very volatile, makes fluid levels difficult to maintain in open processor chloroform and benzene
causes formation of phosgene heating chloroform
a toxic gas phosgene
PEL 50ppm, it is carcinogenic chloroform
low boiling point 58C, will boil off and be replaced by paraffin acetone
can also be used for dehydration acetone
Universal solvent acetone
show more shrinkage than those cleared with xylene tissues cleared w/acetone
are very volatile essential oils
volality is not sufficient to allow ready replacment during paraffing infiltration essential oils
if oil remains in tissue, microtomy is difficult essential oils
remove w/an aromatic hydrocarbon clearing agent essential oils
best known most widely used of the oils cedarwood oil
clears alcohol dehydrated tissue quickly and doesnt cause further shrinkage cedarwood oil
hardens and damages tissue less than and other known clearing agent cedarwood oil
tissue may remain in this oil indefinitely cedarwood oil
are expensive reagents and are not used routinely essential oils
have become popular during last dacade and have a strong citrus odor limonene reagents
irritant, sensitizer in concetrated from, causes allergic reactions limonene reagents
causes difficulty breathing, headaches limonene reagents
PELS are unavailable for inhalation toxicity limonene reagents
harden tissue less than xyelene but they cause more contamination of the paraffin limonene reagents
when used in staining, these reagents are greasier limonene reagents
newest class of clearing agent aliphatic hydrocarbons (alkanes)
they are low in reactivity and toxicity aliphatic hydrocarbons (alkanes)
they are nonirritant and nonsensitizing aliphatic hydrocarbons (alkanes)
they have an 8hour exposure limit of 300ppm aliphatic hydrocarbons (alkanes)
used in histo, they penetrate tissue faster, remove fat effectively and allow coverslips to dry in usual manner light weight (short chains)aliphatics
they dont tolerate water and they are incompatible with some mounting media disadvantage of aliphatics
difficult to use in areas of high humidity aliphatic hydrocarbons
can be used on all tissue processors and automated stainers aliphatic hydrocarbons
not recommended for use on automatic coverslippers aliphatic hydrocarbons
dioxane, tertiary butanol, tetrahydrofuran, acetone universal solvent (dehydrating and clearing)
adequate reagent volume must be maintained to ensure high quality tissue sections
have a schedule for the processor. rotate and change the reagents to ensure consistant section quality
holds cells and intracellular structures, while thin sections are cut embedding media
most popular embedding media, large amounts of tissue can be processed in a short time paraffin
is inert mixture of hydrocarbons produced by craking of petroleum paraffin
contains beeswax, rubber and other waxes or plastics commercial paraffin
formed when the firs section cut adheres to microtome knife ribbons
paraffin becomes harder and provides better support for hard tissue melting point increases
wax becomes soft and provides less suport for hard tissue melting point decreases
should be matched to the hardness of tissue to be sectioned paraffin
enhance ability of paraffin compounds to provide support for hard tissues additives
55C to 58C melting point of paraffin
tissue should remain in it the shortest time necessary for good infiltration paraffin
prolonged heat causes shrinkage and hardening paraffin
keep supply at 2C to 4C above the melting point paraffin supply
tissues exposed to overheated paraffin will overhaden, and section quality will be changed, tissue will not be effected paraffin
must be recorded daily paraffin temp
will become contaminated w/clearing agentm, if it is not changed and monitored frequently paraffin
three changes of paraffin are recommended for infiltration
aided by vacumm paraffin infiltration
staining problems overprocessing
difficult to process on the same processing cycle should be processed overinght on an open processor w/o heat and vaccum bx, uterus, breast and large specimens
dehydrates alcohol
PEL 1,000 ppm Ethyl alcohol
clear,colorless,flammable Ethyl alcohol
drinkable, controlled by federal goverment, troublesome record keeping is required, reliable, fast acting, best dehydrant Ethyl alcohol
is hydrophillic Ethyl alcohol
mixable with water as well as organic solvents in all proportions Ethyl alcohol
should be used in sequence of solutions that gradually increase in concentration Ethyl alcohol
dehydration process is started at 95%, followed by absolute alcohol Ehtyl alcohol
causes excessive shrinkage and hardening Ethyl alcohol
poisonous and rarely used Methyl alcohol
flammable, unpleasant odor, clear, colorless Methyl alcohol
PEL of 200 Methyl alcohol
overexposure causes blindness and death Methyl alcohol
substitute for ethanol isopropanol
no goverment restrictions. doesnt harden or shrink tissue as much as ethanol isopropanol
mildly irratant to eyes, nose, throat isopropanol
PEL of 400 ppm isopropanol
good dehydrant for plant and animal butanol
pronounced odor and low dehydrating power.requires long period for dehydration butanol
excellent dehydrant for slow processing butanol
causes less shrinkage and hardening than ethanol butanol
rapid reacting, less expensive, causes excessive shrinkage acetone
PEL 1,000ppm acetone
flammable, flash point of -17c acetone
referred to as emebedding medium. holds cells and intracellular structures in proper relationship while thin sections are cut infiltration media
Where the tissue cassettes are transported from one solution to next open system processor
no vacuum used open system processor
the tissue is stationary and fluids are pumped in and out of the closed chamber holding the tissue cassette closed system processor
uses vacuum closed system processor
different protocols based on open or closed system processor solutions and times
shorter processing cycle is used for bx specimens so they wont be overhardened processing time
casting or blocking embedding
enclosing the tissue in the infiltration medium used for processing and then allowing the medium to solidify embedding
is determined by the embedding medium used method of processing
side down in the cassette is the side down in the mold embedding reminders
upside can be notched or inked embedding reminders
tissue should be in center of mold embedding reminders
light pressure should be applied over the entire tissue during orientation and light chilling embedding reminders
wipe forceps inbetween samples to prevent forcep metastasis embedding reminders
place in a line parallel to the longer axis on the mold multiple pieces
shuld be facing one side of the mold not up or down the epithelium
embed on diagnol to aid in the ease of sectioning bone
GI tract, cysts and gall bladder tissue w/a wall
embed on an edge so all layers are showing GI tract, cysts and gall bladder (tissue w/a wall)
fallopian tubes, appendix and arteries Tubular structures
embed in a cross section so that the lume and all mucosa, submucosa and external muscle layers are obvious fallopian tubes, appendix and arteries (tubular structures)
micible w/ lower alcohols, water, ether, chloroform, acetone, benzene, toluene, xylene and melted paraffing tetrahydrofuran
same as dioxane in use but less expensive tetrahydrofuran
acts rapidly w/o causing excessive shrinkage and hardening tetrahydrofuran
can be used to dehydrate and clear stained slides tetrahydrofuran
best universal solvent tetrahydrofuran
very volatile, offensive odor, explosive peroxides may form, can cause conjuntivities, use in well ventilated room tetrahydrofuran
produces less shrinkage than ethanol dioxane
faster dehydrant than ethanol but m/b used in larger volumes dioxane
can be reused by treating anhydrous calcium chloride or calcium oxide dioxane
it has water in it, so if itis left in the tissue, it may shrink it up to 50% during infiltration dioxane
cummulatively toxic, pronounced odor, rarely used dioxane
Osha PEL 100ppm, NIOSH PEL 1ppm, carcinogen, flammable dioxane
expensive, tends to solidify at room temp tertieary butanol
most satisfacory method of obtaining F.s. from formalin fxd tissue 30% sucrose
micible w/ lower alcohols, water, ether, chloroform, acetone, benzene, toluene, xylene and melted paraffing tetrahydrofuran
same as dioxane in use but less expensive tetrahydrofuran
acts rapidly w/o causing excessive shrinkage and hardening tetrahydrofuran
can be used to dehydrate and clear stained slides tetrahydrofuran
best universal solvent tetrahydrofuran
very volatile, offensive odor, explosive peroxides may form, can cause conjuntivities, use in well ventilated room tetrahydrofuran
produces less shrinkage than ethanol dioxane
faster dehydrant than ethanol but m/b used in larger volumes dioxane
can be reused by treating anhydrous calcium chloride or calcium oxide dioxane
it has water in it, so if itis left in the tissue, it may shrink it up to 50% during infiltration dioxane
cummulatively toxic, pronounced odor, rarely used dioxane
Osha PEL 100ppm, NIOSH PEL 1ppm, carcinogen, flammable dioxane
expensive, tends to solidify at room temp tertiary butanol
inital paraffin infiltration must be half tertiary butanol and half paraffin tertiary butanol
can be used as a dehydrant in the staining process tertiary butanol
odorus, PEL 100ppm tertiary butanol
Dealcoholization clearing
the removal of alcohol, to make tissue receptive to the infiltration medium clearing
used for processing of tissue and staining of microscopic sections clearing
hard brittle tissue, sectioning difficult excessive clearing
reduces crystal size and increases stickiness and adhesion beeswax
reduces brittleness, increases stickiness and maes the formation of ribbons during sectioning rubber
other waxes produce smooth texture and smaller crystal size Paraffin composition
beeswax,rubber and other waxes Paraffin composition
increases the hardness and support plastics
infiltrate tissue directly from aqueous fixative water soluble waxes
will not infiltrate tissue containing large amounts of fat carbowax
cryoprotectant 30% sucrose
Created by: nperez