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U.S. CH. 4

Settling the West: 1865-1890

TermDefinition
1. vigilance committee Group of ordinary citizens formed by local law enforcement officers and tasked with finding criminals and bringing them to justice
2. hydraulic mining Method of mining by which water is sprayed at a very high pressure against a hill or Mountain, washing very large quantities of dirt, gravel, and rock, and exposing the minerals beneath the surface
3. open range Vast areas of grassland owned by the federal government
4. long drive Driving cattle long distances to a railroad Depot for fast transport and great profit
5. hacienda A huge Ranch
6. barrios Spanish word meaning District or neighborhood. These are further divided into sectors most commonly in the US these referred to lower-class neighborhoods with largely Spanish-speaking residents basically the Latino equivalent to a ghetto. The word often implies that the poverty level is high in such a neighborhood but this reference is not Universal
EXTRACT To remove by force
ADAPT To change in order to meet the demands of a certain environment or circumstance
PRIOR Happening before an event
7. Henry Comstock An American minor after whom the Comstock Lode in Virginia City, Nevada was named. The Comstock Lode was the richest silver mine in American history
8. boomtown A community that undergoes sudden and Rapid population and economic growth, or that is started from scratch
9. homestead Method of acquiring a piece of U.S. public land by living on and cultivating it
10. dry farming A way of farming dry land in which seeds are deeply planted in the ground where there is some moisture
11. sodbuster A name given to Great Plain farmers
12. bonanza farm A large, highly profitable Wheat Farm
PROSPECTIVE To be likely to, or have intentions to, perform an act
INNOVATION A new idea or method
13. Great Plains Grassland Prairie region of North America, extending from Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, in Canada, South through the West Central United States into Texas. This area is now characterized by huge ranches and Farms, they were long inhabited by Native Americans
14. Stephen Long A United States Army Explorer, topographical engineer, and Railway engineer. As an inventor, he is noted for his development in the design of steam locomotives
15. Homestead Act Signed into law in May 1862, this opened up the settlement in the Western United States, allowing any American, including freed slaves, to put in a claim for up to 160 free Acres of federal land. By the end of the Civil War 15,000 claims had been established and more followed in the post-war years eventually 1.6 million individual claims would be approved nearly 10% of all government held property for a total of 420000 square miles of territory
16. Wheat Belt Part of the North American Great Plains where wheat is the dominant crop. The belt extends along a north-south axis from more than 1,500 miles from central Alberta Canada to Central Texas United States. It is subdivided into winter wheat and spring wheat areas
17. nomad A person who continually moves from place to place, usually in search of food
18. annuity Money paid by contract on regular intervals
19. assimilate To absorb a group into the culture of a larger population
20. allotment A plot of land assigned to an individual or family for cultivation
RELOCATE To move to a new place
ENSURE To guarantee or make certain
APPROXIMATELY An estimation of a figure close to the actual figure
21. Sand Creek Massacre Also called chivington Massacre November 29th 1864, controversial surprise attack Upon A surrendered, partially disarmed Cheyenne Indian camp in Southeastern Colorado territory by a force of about 675 United States troops, mostly Colorado volunteers, under collonil John M chivington
22. Indian Peace Commission July 1867 Congress established this to negotiate peace with Plains Indians tribes who were warring with the United States. Commissioners agreed that lasting peace was contingent upon separating Indians regarded as hostile from those regarded as friendly, removing all Indian tribes onto reservations away from the routes of us Westward Expansion, and making Provisions for their maintenance
23. George A. Custer A United States Army officer and Cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the American Indian Wars. Raised in Michigan and Ohio was admitted to West Point in 1857 where he graduated last in his class in 1861. Killed along with all his command by the Sioux at the Battle of Little Bighorn
24. Chief Joseph Of Oregon's Nez Perce Indians who led his people in the 1870s on a desperate attempt to reach Canada rather than submit to forcible settlement on a reservation
25. Dawes Act Created in 1877 it is a federal law intended to turn Native Americans into farmers and landowners by providing cooperating families with 160 Acres of reservation land for farming or 320 acres for grazing