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Introductory Logic

Terms

TermDefinition
formal logic deals with the proper modes of reasoning
informal logic deals with operations of thinking that are indirectly related to reasoning
logic the science and art of reasoning well
induction reasoning with probability from examples or experience to general rules
deduction reasoning with certainty from premises to conclusions
Law of Identity If a statement is true, then it is true.
Law of Noncontradiction A statement cannot be both true and false.
Law of Excluded Middle Any statement is either true or false.
ambiguous has more than one definition, more than one possible meaning
vague extent is unclear
relationships one term has this with another term, is shown when defined properly
persuasive definition definition to influence attitudes and emotions of an audience
theoretical definition defines a concepts in scientific or philosophical terms, alludes to a theory about the term
precising definition not found in a dictionary; situational; seeks to make more precise what was previously vague or fuzzy (Rylee's sandwich)
stipulative definition when a new word is invented or an existing word is applied in a new way (emoji)
term a concept that is expressed precisely in words
definition a statement that gives the meaning of a term
lexical definition shows relationships or reduces ambiguity by providing a single, established meaning of a term; the one in the dictionary
species more specific, narrow, or concrete than the original term and is included by it
genus more general, broad, or abstract than the original term and includes it
mutually exclusive groups that do not overlap
exhaustive no other types exist
intension specific; sum of all the common attributes denoted (or represented) by the term
extension broad; sum of all the individual objects described by the term
statement a sentence that is either true or false
self-supporting statement a statement whose truth value can be determined from the statement itself
tautology a statement that is always true by logical structure
self-contradiction a statement that is false by logical structure
supported statement a statement whose truth value depends on evidence or information from outside itself
consistent when two statements can be true at the same time
implication when the truth of one statement requires the truth of the other
logically equivalent when two statements imply one another
independence when the truth or falsity of one statement has no effect on the truth or falsity of the other
real disagreement an actual inconsistency between two statements; they cannot both be true at the same time
apparent disagreement a difference of opinion or perception
verbal disagreement a misunderstanding due to differing definitions for one or more words
Created by: MrsHough
 

 



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