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MCAT Behavioral Sci1

Psychology , Sociology

QuestionAnswer
Biopsychosocial approach psychological & social factors that contribute to illness &wellness can be integrated into the scientific process of medical diagnosis
Functionalism factions of society work together to maintain STABILITY so society is a system composed of components working for a greater goal. It can't explain social changes & assumes stability is always the same
Conflict theory view society in terms of COMPETING groups that act according to their own SELF-INTEREST rather than stability as whole. It explains changes over time but not when things are stable
social constructionism "SOCIETY IS WHAT WE MAKE" indivs & groups make decisions to agree upon a "created" social reality
symbolic interactionism indivs interact through a shared understanding of words, gestures & other symbols ex: inside joke -symbols can change over time
culture beliefs, assumptions, objects, behaviors & process that make up a shared way of live even though each individual has differences
Material culture physical object one associates w/given culture (art, tools, clothing etc) Ex: anthropological study
Symbolic culture shared rituals, beliefs based on symbols like nodding head but in different culture symbols can have different meanings.
Nonmaterial culture non-physical elements like shared ideas, knowledge, norms, assumptions form a culture Ex: historian study
culture shock . discomfort when first encountering a new culture causing re-evaluation of personal assumptions
social institutions "DICTATE WHAT"S ACCEPTABLE" hierarchial systems that bring order to interpersonal interactions Ex: govt, economy, education, religion, family, health, medicine
rational choice theory individuals will make decisions that maximize potential benefit minimize harm
feminist theory explain social inequalities that exist based on gender Ex: glass ceiling effect in professional areas
value WHAT A PERSON DEEMS IMPORTANT
belief something a person considers to be true
demographics statistics examining population based on age, gender, nationality, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, immigration status, education level -helps understand how society identifies vs how individual identifies
demographic transition demographic change takes place over time due to birth rate, fertility, mortality, migration (relocation of people), emigration (out flow of people)
urbanization increase in proportion of people living in specified urban areas
globalization increase in interaction & integration on international scale through exchange of products, services, ideas & info
social inequality unequal distribution of opportunities or treatments based on demographics categories Ex: homophobia
spatial inequality unequal access of resources due to geography causing diff. qualities of life
global inequality disparities b/w nations & regions such as gross product, nat. resources, access to healthcare & types of work available
social class category of people who share similar socioeconomic position SES: based on income, wealth, education, occupation
social class stratification STATUS: ascribed: derived from age, skin color & gender achieved: acquired via indiv. effort POWER: influence over community PRESTIGE: (+) regard given by society PRIVILEGE: power & opportunity so don't consider soc. hierarchy Ex: white vs nonwhite
Social class mobility types UPWARD:move up due to edu, marriage, financial success DOWNWARD: move lower due to lack of edu, job,etc INTRAGENERATIONAL:change classes in one generation INTERGENERATIONAL:change classes in various generations MERITOCRACY:advancement based on merit
social capital individual social networks & connections provide economic or personal benefit "WHO YOU KNOW MATTERS"
cultural capital social factors that contribute to social mobility "FITTING IN"
Poverty types ABSOLUTE: lack of essential resources such as food, shelter, clothing, hygiene "Extreme life threatening" RELATIVE: people poor compared to others SOCIAL REPRODUCTION: transmission of social inequality from one generation to the next
consciousness awareness of self, thought, surrounding & goals
alertness "default state" of consciousness beta waves observed in EEG
circadian rhythm -daily balance b/w wakefulness & sleep -drive for sleep build during day -drive for wakefulness driven by SUPRACHNIUS NUCLEUS (SCN) located in hypothalamus which inhibits the release of melatonin by pineal gland ↑light↑melatonin inhibition
Sleep stages 1) Awake 2)NREM 1 3)NREM2 4)NREM 3 5)NREM 4 6) REM
awake stage EEG waves: Beta & Alpha *able to perceive, process, access, & express info
NREM 1 EEG waves: Alpha *light sleep, no dreams
NREM 2 EEG waves: Theta *sleep spindles & K complexes associated w/ full transition into sleep, no dreams
NREM 3 EEG waves: Delta *transition into deep sleep, no dreams
NREM 4 EEG waves: Delta *DEEPEST SLEEP: slow wave sleep, declarative memory consolidation, some sleep disorders
REM EEG: Mostly Beta -High brain activity, appears awake physiologically, dreams paralyzed, procedural memory consolidation, some sleep disorders
Sleep Disorders: 1) Insomnia 2) Sleep terror disorder 3) Narcolepsy 4)Hypnosis 5)Meditation
Insomnia trouble falling asleep & low quality
Sleep terror disorder severe nightmares like imagery during NREM sleep & body moves
Narcolepsy Takeover of waking life by REM sleep that occurs without warning
Hypnosis state of relaxation, focused attention & increased willingness to release control of own actions
Meditation self-produced state of consciousness induced by relaxing & narrowing attention to focus outside of self or broadening attention
Conscious altering drugs Agonists Antagonist Reuptake Neuro drugs Reuptake Inhibitor drugs Enzyme Inhibitor drugs Depressants Stimulants Opiates/Opiods Hallucinogens Marijuana
agonist drugs mimic chemically neurotransmitters "Increasing" their effect on neural functioning
antagonist drugs bind to neurotrans receptors blocking neurotrans binding site ↓normal effects
Reuptake neurotransmitter drugs prevent constant stimulation of post-synaptic receptors
Reputake inhibitor drugs greater amount of neurotrans remain in synapse
enzyme inhibitor drugs prevent breakdown of neurotrans taken up
Depressant drugs (alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepanes) -sense of relaxation & reduced anxiety
Stimulant drugs (amphetamine, cocaine, ecstasy) -increased arousal energy, dopamine, epinephrine
Opiates/Opiods (heroin, morphine, opium, pain killers) -Euphoria, decreased reaction to pain
Hallucinogens (LSD, peyote, mescaline, ketamine, mushroom) -distortion of reality & fantasy, introspection
Marijuana depressant, stimulant & hallucinogen in high doses
Behavior response to the internal & external stimuli experienced
social behavior interaactions taking place b/w members of same species like ATTRACTION (factors draw members together), AGGRESSION (conflict & competition b/w indiv), ATTACHMENT (forming emotional bonds), SOCIAL SUPPORT( finding help through social connections)
foraging set of behaviors used to obtain food like hunting in groups vs solo
mating behavior surrounding propagation through reproduction & mate choice determined by various factors like genetic qualities, health, potential parenting skills etc
altruism behaviors disadvantageous to the indivs like sacrifice but benefits others Ex: inclusive fitness: benefits offspring of close relatives
game theory a study of mathematical models where actions of other group members must be taken into account so each player carries out competitive or cooperative strategies to maximize evolutionary success
group set of indivs interacting w/each other & share some identity elements
organization collection of indivs joined together to coordinate their interactions to achieve a specific goal
role a person plays this in a social interaction defined by beliefs, values, & norms that are expected from them
self-presentation how humans are perceived
self-presentation types IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT: consciously making behavioral choices to create an impression in the minds of others DRAMATURGICAL APPROACH: indiv. create a FRONT-STAGE self ( behavior shown when watched) BACK STAGE SELF (behavior when no audience just players)
display rules unspoken rules that govern the expression of emotion
group think group members think alike & agree on decisions based on ideas & solutions arised within the group w/o considering outside ideas -this can lead to members feeling pressured to agreeing for the sake of group harmony
group polarization (GO CRAZY AS A GROUP) attitude of the group as a whole towards a particular issue becomes stronger, extreme than individual attitudes
peer pressure social influence exerted/forced by ones peer to act a certain way
social facilitation tendency to perform better (or worse) when a person knows he's being watched
diffusion of responsibility people on a large anonymous crowd feel less accountable for the outcome of a situation
bystander effect onlookers in a crowd fail to offer assistance to a person who's in trouble b/c they assume someone else will help
social loafing one person starts slacking off so others do work for them
deindividuation occurs when people loose sense of self & follow the crowd
socialization process by which people learn customs & values, norms, & beliefs via observational learning & operant conditioning where proper behavior is rewarded and unacceptable is punished
agents of socialization groups & people who influence personal attitudes, beliefs, behaviors
conformity indivs change their opinions & behaviors to align w/ group norms
obedience behavioral changes in response to what an authority figure commands
deviance any violation of norms, rules, or expectations within a society
stigma a negative social label that changes a person's social identity by classifying the labeled person as abnormal or tainted
compliance indivs change behavior based on the request of others
foot in the door technique ask for small favor than big
door in the face technique ask for large, fail than ask for small
lowball technique small commitment at first than it gets bigger
that's not all technique offer made than gets better before taking decision similar to lowball technique
assimilation process by which an indiv or group becomes part of new culture
multiculturalism practice of valuing & respecting differences in culture
subculture culture shared by a smaller group of people who are also part of a larger culture but have specific culture attributes separating them
ethnocentrsim belief that one's group is of central importance & judge other cultures based on one's own cultural standards
culture relativism practice of trying to understand culture based on that culture's standards
in group a group with which an individual shares identity & feels loyalty for them
out group a group with which an indiv doesn't identify with, feel hostile, & competitive towards them
bias individual favors the in group & devalues the out group
prejudice misunderstandings or unjustified generalizations about people who aren't in the group
discrimination unfair treatment of others based on membership in a certain group
stereotype belief that all members of that groups share certain characteristics
stereotype threat anxiety & impaired performance when confronted with a negative stereotype
self-fulfilling prophecy stress from knowing negative stereotype causing stereotype to become a reality
individual discrimination one person discriminating another
institutional discrimination discrimination based on social institutions employing policies that differentiate b/w people
Created by: aperez48