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MCAT Physics 1

Physics: Kinematics, Work & Energy, Newton's Law, Fluids

QuestionAnswer
1 eV 1.60x10^-19J
h 6.626 x 10^-34 J*s
Rh 2.18x10^-18 J/e-
c 3.0x10^8m/s
√2 1.4
√3 1.7
1 mole; ideal gas; STP 22.4L
1 mole 6.022 x 10^23 particles
SOH-CAH-TOA 3-4-5 5-12-13 8-15-17
log(AB) log A +logB
log(A/B) logA-logB
log(A^B) B*logA
log(1/A) -logA
logx ln(x)/2.3
log(n x 10^m) m+0.n
x^0 1
x^1 x
(x^a)(x^b) x^(a+b)
(x^a)/(x^b) x^(a-b)
(x^a)^b x^(ab)
(xy)^a (x^a)(y^a)
(x/y)^a (x^a)/(y^a)
x^(-1) 1/x
x^(1/n) n√x
x^(m/n) n√(x^m)=(n√x)^m ex: x^(9/2)=√x^9=(√x)^9
Angle chart Sin(0)=0 Sin(30=π/6)=1/2 Sin(45=π/4)=√2/2 sin(60=π/3)= √3/2 sin(90=π/2)=1 sin(180=π)=0 sin(270=3π/2)=-1 cos(0)=1 cos(30=π/6)=√3/2 cos(45=π/4)=√2/2 cos(60=π/3)= 1/2 cos(90=π/2)=0 cos(180=π)=-1 cos(270=3π/2)=0
vector physical quantity w/both magnitude & direction
scalar physical quantity w/magnitude but no direction
Vector adding & subtracting * when given angle use SOHCAHTOA to find vector X&Y components Add: Head of 1st vector must meet tail of 2nd vector & draw arrow from tail of 1st to head of 2nd Subtract: place head of two vectors together & draw arrow from tail to tail For 3 or more: break into x&y components Y& Xtot=R=√(x^2tot +y^2tot)
Linear Motion Eqns (tax) ▲x=Vi*t + 1/2a*t^2 (vat) Vf=Vi + a*t (vax) (Vf)^2=(Vi)^2+2a*▲x Vavg=1/2(V+V1) X=v*t=((V+Vi)/2)T *Find max height Vel. vertical=o at highest point of path v=√(2gh)
Center of mass -point where single force can be applied in any direction & cause all points to accelerate equally -if uniformly dense it will consider with geometric center but if not it will shift to heavier side X=(m1x1+m2x2+..)/(m1+m2+..)
Hooke Law (spring) F=-k▲x yield point: deformed to point it can't gain it's original shape fracture point: deformed to breaking point
Displacement vs time slope=Vinstanteneous (v=▲d/t) upward slop=+ vel downward slope=- vel straight line=constant vel straight horizontal slope= m=0 v=0 curved line= m=changing v=changing
velocity vs time slope=a instanteneous (a=▲v/t) upward slop=+ a downward slope=- a straight line=constant a straight horizontal slope= a=0 curved line=a=changing (-) a could be slowing down or going in reverse direction
Total displacement (area above x-axis & below curve)-(area below x-axis&above curve)
Total distance sum of areas b/w curve & x-axis
Types of Forces Fnet=sum of all forces Fnet=o when equal in magnitude & opposite in direction Gravitational: mg Electromagnetic: require magnet/charge object Contact: Normal (Fn) & Friction (Fk or Fs) Univ Gravitation: GM1M2/r^2
Projectile Motion Peak height found by v=√(2gh). to find max height of projectile launched from ground V=Visin(angle) due to vx=0 so final vel. can be found due projectile dropped from certain h
How to draw free body diagram 1) Draw it in simple terms 2)Find center of mass 3) Define system & draw only forces acting on system 4)know if Fnet exist or net
First Law of Newton (law of inertia) any object in a state of rest or motion stays in that state unless a force is applied
Second Law of Newton (F=ma) m↑a↓if F is constant but F↑a↑ if m=constant
Third Law of Newton (-Fa=Fb) for every action there's an equa; & opposite rxn
Uniform circular motion Fc=M(v^2)/r=ma a=(v^2)/r
Universal Gravitation F=GM1M2/r^2 (m*kg/s^2) G=6067x10^-11(m^3/kg*s^2) determines how quickly two objects w/slightly different masses accelerate toward each other
Inclined Planes Fn=mgcos(angle)=Fy Fx=mgsin(angle) Look at diagram
Friction static fs≤µkFn when surfaces don't slide
Friction kinetic fk=µkFn when surfaces slide
Torque =F*r*sinΘ r=distance b/w point of rotation & F is applied -could be CCW or CW ↑τ ↑rotation of accel ↑F ↑r -Fg always middle of all forces(stick has mass) -mboard found by picking midpoint as τboard & point of rotation no longer at end of board
Equilibrium Fnet=o τnet=0 so a=o v=constant static equi: velocities=0 dynamic equi: velocities=nonzero but constant Fup+Fnet=Fdown
system area separated from universe(surroundings) E leaving system=E entering surroundings E total system= systems sum
open system energy(work&heat) & mass exchanges w/surroundings
closed system energy (work&heat) are exchanged but not mass
isolated system energy (work &heat) & mass aren't exchanged
Energy unit Joule (J)=1kg*(m^2)/s^2=1N*m
Mechanical energy Etot=KE+U=1/2mv^2 + mgh or 1/2mv^2 -GM1M2/r
Gravitational potential energy -GM1M2/r=mgh E↓r↓
Elastic potential energy 1/2k▲x^2
1st Law of Thermodynamics ▲Etotal=W+q=KE+U+▲Einternal
Work W=F*d*sin(Θ)=-PV
adiabatic q=0 ▲U=W
constant vol W=0 ▲U=q
Isothermal ▲U=0 W=q
2nd Law of Thermodynamics process that moves from one state of equilibrium to another , entropy of system and environment together will increase or remain the same
Linear expansion -increase in length by most solids when heated ▲L=α*L*▲T T↑L↑ mnemonic: (αl▲t)
volume expansion increase in volume of fluid when heated ▲V=ß*V*▲T
conduction direct transfer of energy via molecular collisions (direct contact)
convection transfer of heat by the physical motion of fluid
radiation transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
specific heat (J,calories, Calories (kcal)) q=mc▲T -only used when object doesn't change phase -NO TEMP change during phase change Q>0 heat gained Q<0 heat lost
heat of transformation Q=m*L -quantity of heat required to change the phase of 1g of a substance
Work Kinetic Theorem (J, N*m) -absence of heat; adiabatic U=q so W=▲KE W=F*d*cos(Θ)=-P▲V F is (+) when same direction as displacement F is (-) when in opposite direction W DONE on system it's (+) W DONE on surroundings (system doing work) it's (-) W>0 compression W<0 expansion
Conservation of Energy K1+U1=K2+U2 so ▲E=0 There are no non-conservative forces (kinetic frictional forces, pushing & pulling forces)
Power (J/s) P=W/▲t=▲E(tot)/t
Instantaneous power Pinst=F*v*cos(Θ)
Fluid density (kg/m^3) p=m/vol
density of water 1000kg/m^3=1g/cm^3
specific gravity sg=p(substance)/p(water) sg<1 lighter than water sg=1 equilibrium as heavy as water sg>1 heavier than water
Fluid pressure(N/m^2) P=F/A -pressure experienced by the object as a result of the impulse of collisions
Fluids at Rest P=pgy p=density g=gravitational constant y=depth of fluid from the top of object to the bottom of fluid ↓y ↓mass ↓pressure P=F/A=m1g/A1=m2g/A2
Gauge pressure Pg=P-Patm measure of the pressure (negative fluid/air sucked in) to atmosphere pressure
Absolute pressure P=pgy+Patm
P total fluids add each Pfluid when fluids are stacked one above the other
Pascal's Principle pressure applied distributed undiminished throughout that fluid Ex: air pressure on top of mountain is low due to atmosphere acting like sea of air where y↓ m↓ since closer to the top P=mgy↓
Hydraulic lift W1=W2 since F1d1=F2d2 A2>A1 F2>F1 d1>d2 -look at slide
Buoyancy Force Fb= p(fluid)*V(fluid)*g=M(fluid)*g Vfluid dissipated=A*y -▲P,▲y,▲F reach MAXIMUM when object FULLY submerge and values DOESN"T change w/ depth once submerged
Archimede's Principle -Fb exerted by standing fluid on object submerged or sunk ↑P ↑F ↑y since P=pgy=F/A
Floating object (p(obj)/p(fluid))=(Vfluid/Vobj)≤1 Fb=Fg(object) Mfluid*g=Mobj*g M(fluid)=M(obj)
Submerged object (p obj/p fluid)=(V fluid/ V obj)=1 Mfluid=Mobj p fluid=p obj
Sunk object p obj/p fluid≥ 1 Fb + Fn=Fg=M obj * g Fb Fg M obj M fluid Vfluid=Vobj
Weight Loss Apparent *sunk object Fn< Fg p fluid/p obj *100=apparent weight loss
Characteristics of Ideal Fluid 1) No viscosity- tendency to resist flow 2) Incompressible- uniform density 3) Lack Turbulence- experience laminar (steady) flow so same velocity in same direction &magnitude 4) Experience irrotational flow- no rotation
Volume vs Mass Flow Rate Vol. Flow rate= Q=A*v ↑A↓v Mass Flow rate= I=p*Q=p*A*V
Characteristics of Non-ideal Fluid drag, real viscosity, turbulence, compressible ↑velocity in center of pipe ↑resistance flow ↑fluid-obj interface ↓width of pipe ↑drag ↑Length of pipe *Flow from high to low pressure ▲P=Q*R←resistance Q=(▲P*π*r^4)/8*R*L R→viscocity L→pipelength
Bernoulli's Eqn P1+ 1/2p*(V1)^2 + pgh1= P2+ 1/2p*(V2)^2 + pgh2 ↓ ↓ KE U h: measure from bottom to top *relationship b/w P&V: ↑stay put ↑stung ↑P but if not P↓(↓molecular collision)
Created by: aperez48