Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

Normal Size Small Size show me how

Normal Size Small Size show me how

# MCAT Physics 1

### Physics: Kinematics, Work & Energy, Newton's Law, Fluids

Question | Answer |
---|---|

1 eV | 1.60x10^-19J |

h | 6.626 x 10^-34 J*s |

Rh | 2.18x10^-18 J/e- |

c | 3.0x10^8m/s |

√2 | 1.4 |

√3 | 1.7 |

1 mole; ideal gas; STP | 22.4L |

1 mole | 6.022 x 10^23 particles |

SOH-CAH-TOA | 3-4-5 5-12-13 8-15-17 |

log(AB) | log A +logB |

log(A/B) | logA-logB |

log(A^B) | B*logA |

log(1/A) | -logA |

logx | ln(x)/2.3 |

log(n x 10^m) | m+0.n |

x^0 | 1 |

x^1 | x |

(x^a)(x^b) | x^(a+b) |

(x^a)/(x^b) | x^(a-b) |

(x^a)^b | x^(ab) |

(xy)^a | (x^a)(y^a) |

(x/y)^a | (x^a)/(y^a) |

x^(-1) | 1/x |

x^(1/n) | n√x |

x^(m/n) | n√(x^m)=(n√x)^m ex: x^(9/2)=√x^9=(√x)^9 |

Angle chart | Sin(0)=0 Sin(30=π/6)=1/2 Sin(45=π/4)=√2/2 sin(60=π/3)= √3/2 sin(90=π/2)=1 sin(180=π)=0 sin(270=3π/2)=-1 cos(0)=1 cos(30=π/6)=√3/2 cos(45=π/4)=√2/2 cos(60=π/3)= 1/2 cos(90=π/2)=0 cos(180=π)=-1 cos(270=3π/2)=0 |

vector | physical quantity w/both magnitude & direction |

scalar | physical quantity w/magnitude but no direction |

Vector adding & subtracting * when given angle use SOHCAHTOA to find vector X&Y components | Add: Head of 1st vector must meet tail of 2nd vector & draw arrow from tail of 1st to head of 2nd Subtract: place head of two vectors together & draw arrow from tail to tail For 3 or more: break into x&y components Y& Xtot=R=√(x^2tot +y^2tot) |

Linear Motion Eqns | (tax) ▲x=Vi*t + 1/2a*t^2 (vat) Vf=Vi + a*t (vax) (Vf)^2=(Vi)^2+2a*▲x Vavg=1/2(V+V1) X=v*t=((V+Vi)/2)T *Find max height Vel. vertical=o at highest point of path v=√(2gh) |

Center of mass | -point where single force can be applied in any direction & cause all points to accelerate equally -if uniformly dense it will consider with geometric center but if not it will shift to heavier side X=(m1x1+m2x2+..)/(m1+m2+..) |

Hooke Law (spring) | F=-k▲x yield point: deformed to point it can't gain it's original shape fracture point: deformed to breaking point |

Displacement vs time | slope=Vinstanteneous (v=▲d/t) upward slop=+ vel downward slope=- vel straight line=constant vel straight horizontal slope= m=0 v=0 curved line= m=changing v=changing |

velocity vs time | slope=a instanteneous (a=▲v/t) upward slop=+ a downward slope=- a straight line=constant a straight horizontal slope= a=0 curved line=a=changing (-) a could be slowing down or going in reverse direction |

Total displacement | (area above x-axis & below curve)-(area below x-axis&above curve) |

Total distance | sum of areas b/w curve & x-axis |

Types of Forces | Fnet=sum of all forces Fnet=o when equal in magnitude & opposite in direction Gravitational: mg Electromagnetic: require magnet/charge object Contact: Normal (Fn) & Friction (Fk or Fs) Univ Gravitation: GM1M2/r^2 |

Projectile Motion | Peak height found by v=√(2gh). to find max height of projectile launched from ground V=Visin(angle) due to vx=0 so final vel. can be found due projectile dropped from certain h |

How to draw free body diagram | 1) Draw it in simple terms 2)Find center of mass 3) Define system & draw only forces acting on system 4)know if Fnet exist or net |

First Law of Newton | (law of inertia) any object in a state of rest or motion stays in that state unless a force is applied |

Second Law of Newton | (F=ma) m↑a↓if F is constant but F↑a↑ if m=constant |

Third Law of Newton | (-Fa=Fb) for every action there's an equa; & opposite rxn |

Uniform circular motion | Fc=M(v^2)/r=ma a=(v^2)/r |

Universal Gravitation | F=GM1M2/r^2 (m*kg/s^2) G=6067x10^-11(m^3/kg*s^2) determines how quickly two objects w/slightly different masses accelerate toward each other |

Inclined Planes | Fn=mgcos(angle)=Fy Fx=mgsin(angle) Look at diagram |

Friction static | fs≤µkFn when surfaces don't slide |

Friction kinetic | fk=µkFn when surfaces slide |

Torque | =F*r*sinΘ r=distance b/w point of rotation & F is applied -could be CCW or CW ↑τ ↑rotation of accel ↑F ↑r -Fg always middle of all forces(stick has mass) -mboard found by picking midpoint as τboard & point of rotation no longer at end of board |

Equilibrium | Fnet=o τnet=0 so a=o v=constant static equi: velocities=0 dynamic equi: velocities=nonzero but constant Fup+Fnet=Fdown |

system | area separated from universe(surroundings) E leaving system=E entering surroundings E total system= systems sum |

open system | energy(work&heat) & mass exchanges w/surroundings |

closed system | energy (work&heat) are exchanged but not mass |

isolated system | energy (work &heat) & mass aren't exchanged |

Energy unit | Joule (J)=1kg*(m^2)/s^2=1N*m |

Mechanical energy | Etot=KE+U=1/2mv^2 + mgh or 1/2mv^2 -GM1M2/r |

Gravitational potential energy | -GM1M2/r=mgh E↓r↓ |

Elastic potential energy | 1/2k▲x^2 |

1st Law of Thermodynamics | ▲Etotal=W+q=KE+U+▲Einternal |

Work | W=F*d*sin(Θ)=-PV |

adiabatic | q=0 ▲U=W |

constant vol | W=0 ▲U=q |

Isothermal | ▲U=0 W=q |

2nd Law of Thermodynamics | process that moves from one state of equilibrium to another , entropy of system and environment together will increase or remain the same |

Linear expansion | -increase in length by most solids when heated ▲L=α*L*▲T T↑L↑ mnemonic: (αl▲t) |

volume expansion | increase in volume of fluid when heated ▲V=ß*V*▲T |

conduction | direct transfer of energy via molecular collisions (direct contact) |

convection | transfer of heat by the physical motion of fluid |

radiation | transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves |

specific heat (J,calories, Calories (kcal)) | q=mc▲T -only used when object doesn't change phase -NO TEMP change during phase change Q>0 heat gained Q<0 heat lost |

heat of transformation | Q=m*L -quantity of heat required to change the phase of 1g of a substance |

Work Kinetic Theorem (J, N*m) | -absence of heat; adiabatic U=q so W=▲KE W=F*d*cos(Θ)=-P▲V F is (+) when same direction as displacement F is (-) when in opposite direction W DONE on system it's (+) W DONE on surroundings (system doing work) it's (-) W>0 compression W<0 expansion |

Conservation of Energy | K1+U1=K2+U2 so ▲E=0 There are no non-conservative forces (kinetic frictional forces, pushing & pulling forces) |

Power (J/s) | P=W/▲t=▲E(tot)/t |

Instantaneous power | Pinst=F*v*cos(Θ) |

Fluid density (kg/m^3) | p=m/vol |

density of water | 1000kg/m^3=1g/cm^3 |

specific gravity | sg=p(substance)/p(water) sg<1 lighter than water sg=1 equilibrium as heavy as water sg>1 heavier than water |

Fluid pressure(N/m^2) | P=F/A -pressure experienced by the object as a result of the impulse of collisions |

Fluids at Rest | P=pgy p=density g=gravitational constant y=depth of fluid from the top of object to the bottom of fluid ↓y ↓mass ↓pressure P=F/A=m1g/A1=m2g/A2 |

Gauge pressure | Pg=P-Patm measure of the pressure (negative fluid/air sucked in) to atmosphere pressure |

Absolute pressure | P=pgy+Patm |

P total fluids | add each Pfluid when fluids are stacked one above the other |

Pascal's Principle | pressure applied distributed undiminished throughout that fluid Ex: air pressure on top of mountain is low due to atmosphere acting like sea of air where y↓ m↓ since closer to the top P=mgy↓ |

Hydraulic lift | W1=W2 since F1d1=F2d2 A2>A1 F2>F1 d1>d2 -look at slide |

Buoyancy Force | Fb= p(fluid)*V(fluid)*g=M(fluid)*g Vfluid dissipated=A*y -▲P,▲y,▲F reach MAXIMUM when object FULLY submerge and values DOESN"T change w/ depth once submerged |

Archimede's Principle | -Fb exerted by standing fluid on object submerged or sunk ↑P ↑F ↑y since P=pgy=F/A |

Floating object | (p(obj)/p(fluid))=(Vfluid/Vobj)≤1 Fb=Fg(object) Mfluid*g=Mobj*g M(fluid)=M(obj) |

Submerged object | (p obj/p fluid)=(V fluid/ V obj)=1 Mfluid=Mobj p fluid=p obj |

Sunk object | p obj/p fluid≥ 1 Fb + Fn=Fg=M obj * g Fb Fg M obj M fluid Vfluid=Vobj |

Weight Loss Apparent *sunk object | Fn< Fg p fluid/p obj *100=apparent weight loss |

Characteristics of Ideal Fluid | 1) No viscosity- tendency to resist flow 2) Incompressible- uniform density 3) Lack Turbulence- experience laminar (steady) flow so same velocity in same direction &magnitude 4) Experience irrotational flow- no rotation |

Volume vs Mass Flow Rate | Vol. Flow rate= Q=A*v ↑A↓v Mass Flow rate= I=p*Q=p*A*V |

Characteristics of Non-ideal Fluid | drag, real viscosity, turbulence, compressible ↑velocity in center of pipe ↑resistance flow ↑fluid-obj interface ↓width of pipe ↑drag ↑Length of pipe *Flow from high to low pressure ▲P=Q*R←resistance Q=(▲P*π*r^4)/8*R*L R→viscocity L→pipelength |

Bernoulli's Eqn | P1+ 1/2p*(V1)^2 + pgh1= P2+ 1/2p*(V2)^2 + pgh2 ↓ ↓ KE U h: measure from bottom to top *relationship b/w P&V: ↑stay put ↑stung ↑P but if not P↓(↓molecular collision) |

Created by:
aperez48