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AA, Protein, Enzyme

Hydrolysis use water to break apart -cleave acid & heat (nonspecific) or protease (specific)
dehydration form molecule & release water
hydrophobic hate water
hydrophilic like water
eicosanoids -hormone, thromboxane, eukotrienes functio: regulate blood pressure, body temp, smooth muscle contraction, -transported via lipoprotein (VLDL,LDL,IDL,HDL) ↑ratio of lipid ↓protein density
Carbohydrate D vs L D: hydroxyl group on 5-carbon in Fischer projection points to right L: points to left
Carbohydrate Structure Cn(H2O)n -beta:alcohol UPWARD on anomeric carbon alpha:alcohol DOWNWARD on anomeric carbon anomeric carbon(C-1): C=OH C-5 attacks C=O to form hexagon structure w/CH2OH at C-5 (glucose)
Carbohydrate -store energy but not as much as lipids -form polysaccharides via dehudration and monosaccharides via hydrolysis
Glycosidic linkages linkages b/w sugars
ketose sugar w/aldehyde as most oxidized group
aldose sugar w/ketose as most oxidized group
epimer carbohydrate differs at one chiral carbon
anomer carbohydrate differs at anomeric carbon (C-1)
D-Fructose CH2OH │ C=O │ HO-C-H │ H-C-OH │ H-C-OH │ CH2OH
D-glucose H-C=O │ H-C-OH │ OH-C-H │ H-C-OH │ H-C-OH │ CH2OH
D-galactose H-C=O │ H-C-OH │ OH-C-H │ OH-C-H │ H-C-OH │ CH2OH
D-mannose H-C=O │ OH-C-H │ OH-C-H │ H-C-OH │ H-C-OH │ CH2OH
sucrose glucose-α-1,2-fructose
lactose galactose-ß-1,4-glucose
maltose glucose-α-1,4-glucose
cellulose plant cell wall fiber for humans
starch energy storage for plants
glycogen energy storage for animals
nucleotide composed of a nitrogeneous base, a five carbon sugar (deoxy or RN) & a phosphate group C2: H (DNA) or OH (RNA) C1: place of attachment for A, T, U, G, C C5: place of attachment for phosphate group
purine guanine, adenine (two cyclic ring)
pyrimidine cytosine, thymine, uracil (one cyclic ring)
how many H bonds b/w? Guanine & cytosine 3H bonds adenine & thymine/uracil 2H bonds
purines=pyrimidines #A= #T = #U #G = #C
5'-3" direction Top layer (parallel) 5"-3" direction Bottom layer (antiparallel) 3'-5' direction
RNA 1) carbon #2 -OH 2) Uracil instead of thymine 3) In cytoplasm & nucleus 4) single-stranded 5) mRNA (messneger) rRNA ( ribosomal) tRNA (transfer)
amino acid structure H2N-CR-COOH
nonpolar aa GAVLIFWMP
polar aa STCYNQ
basic aa DE
acidic aa HRK
glycine nonpolar [Gly] G achiral R=H
alanine nonpolar [Ala] A chiral R=CH3
valine nonpolar [Val] V chiral R=HC-(CH3)2
leucine nonpolar [Leu] L chiral R=CH2-CH-(CH3)2
Isoleucine nonpolar [ILE] I chiral R=H-C-(CH2CH3)(CH3)
phenylalanine nonpolar [Phe] F chiral R= CH2-(Benzene)
tryptophan nonpolar [Trp] W chiral R= CH2-(indole group) *look at slide
methionine nonpolar [Met] M chiral R= CH2-CH2-S-CH3
proline nonpolar [pro] P chiral causes kinks since H bond can't form HN-C-COOH | | \/
Created by: aperez48