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BTEC Respiratory

Respiratory system structure

TermDefinition
Lungs They are located on the two sides of the heart. These are responsible for the transporting of oxygen from the atmosphere into blood and releasing carbon dioxide from blood to the atmosphere
Lobes The lobes are the folds of the lung that allows for an increase in the surface are a of the lung. The lobes allow the lung to slide over itself, increasing the surface area of the lung allowing us to take deeper breaths, every breath would be the same
Pleural Cavity & Membrane The pleural membrane is thin, moist, slippery and has two layers. The cavity is the space between these and is filled with fluid secreted by the membranes. This allows the lungs to expand and reduce whilst breathing allowing the lungs to move easily.
Visceral pleura The parietal, pleura lines the inside of the rib cage and the diaphragm while the inner, visceral layer covers the lungs. . This allows the two layers to slide easily over one another as the lungs inflate and deflate during respiration.
Thoracic Cavity This is responsible for holding and protecting all the organs in place at the chest (lungs, and heart).
Pleural Fluid This is here to prevent friction between the lungs and the ribs when we breathe. The fluid is the body cavity that surrounds the lungs and is situated between the plural cavity.
Diaphragm: Contraction and relaxation happens here when we inhale and exhale, in order to accommodate and expel air from the body. It is a dome shaped sheet of muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen.
Internal Intercostal Muscles: These are the muscles that are found between the ribs, there are two types; extend from the front of the ribs that bends around past the bend in the ribs. These are responsible for the elevation of the ribs and expanding the thoracic cavity.
External Intercostal Muscles: These are the muscles that are found between the ribs, there are two types; wrap around from the back of the ribs almost to the bony part f the front ribs. These aid in quiet and forced inhalation, by responding to the contraction of the diaphragm.
Nasal Cavity Is located behind the nose, it is responsible for conditioning the air that is received by the nose, so it either warms or cools the air, removes dust particles and moistens it. So that this air is now suitable to enter the pharynx.
Epiglottis Serves as a lid for the windpipe that closes only when swallowing and remains up right at other times, it is very flexible. Therefore, it prevents food particles and liquids from entering the larynx and trachea.
Pharynx It is located behind the nasal cavity just above the larynx. It plays a role in the digestive system of the human body. Therefore its main function is to allow food and air to pass through, by pushing the food to the oesophagus after being swallowed.
Larynx This helps with the production of sound, this occurs when air causes vocal cords to vibrate. Also its other functions are to allow us to breathe and swallow. The larynx is situated within the neck so it also keeps the trachea protected.
Trachea Known as the windpipe, it connects the nose and mouth to the lungs. It’s a very bony tube made of cartilage which keeps it rigid. Its role is to maintain and protect the air way,
Bronchus The bronchi is allow air to pass through, as it splits into two parts one to the left lung one to the right. It extends from the trachea and filters air.
Bronchioles These branch of the bronchus and are smaller airways. Their function is to take on fresh air to the alveoli and taking carbon dioxide out of the lungs.
Alveoli Are made of thin moist walls, which allow easy diffusion of gases. There are several thousands of these and are surrounded by capillaries to exchange O2 into the blood and CO2 out.
Created by: Tina Dean